The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

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Harvard Society, The School of Paris, The School of New York, Photography, Bauhaus 119-1923/1924

The School of Paris 1910–1928  Painting and Sculpture by the School of New York 1920–1930  Photography 1930  Bauhaus 1919–1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau

The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

   Many essays have been written about Lincoln Kirstein (1907 – 1996), John Walker III (1906 – 1995), and Edward M. M. Warburg (1908 – 1992) and their exhibition venue at 1400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, on the second floor of the Harvard Cooperative Building, in Room 207 and 208. To know the exhibition timeline and the shown artists is important for each survey on the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art and is subject of this blog post as part of artist-info‘s focus on documenting exhibitions from 1880 up to the present, worldwide.
   The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Inc. wanted to show new currents and movements in art by local and national artists, as well as new European artwork, architecture, design, typography, film, and photography. Although the three student’s budget to run the gallery was very limited, their enthusiasm for Modernism wasn’t and their groundbreaking effort was influential in many ways. The three had the courage to confront the public, the press, the art critics with gallery exhibitions of Modernism artwork – which wouldn’t have been possible without the academic network they belonged to: First to mention Paul Sachs and Edward Forbes, then A. Everett ‘Chick’ Austin, Kirk Askew, Jere Abbott, Alfred H. Barr, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, and the undergraduates Philip Johnson and Julien Levy. The board of trustees of the Inc. included: Edward Waldo Forbes (director of the Fogg Museum), Paul Joseph Sachs (associated director of the Fogg Museum, professor of art history), John Nicholas Brown (collector), Philip Hofer (collector), Arthur Pope (professor of art history), Arthur Sachs (financier), and Felix M. Warburg (Edward’s father).
   Their mission was based on the exhibitions they organized and the artists they were showing in these exhibitions. The timeline below starts with their first exhibition in February 1929 until 1932, the year Lincoln Kirstein moved to New York. He had become member of MoMA’s Advisory Committee and was chairman of the exhibition committee, and the exhibition’s director, which organized Murals by American Painters and Photographers – Mural Paintings and – Photo-Murals, the opening exhibition at MoMA’s new address at 11 West 53rd Street.

Exhibitions and Artists 1929-1932

Exhibition History An alternative to the static list below provides the interactive exhibition timeline on the artist-info page of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, with all exhibitions, all their artists and access to the artists’ other exhibitions and exhibition venues, starting 1880.
   Our starting point to document the exhibition history of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art and the shown artists was Nicolas Fox Weber’s ‘Patron Saints – Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943’ (Yale University Press, 1995). Looking into additional sources and the original exhibition catalogs brought to light many more artists than the overview in ‘Patron Saints – Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943’ is giving and provides like this an exciting new insight.
   Exciting does mean that you find today, early March 2018, for the 285 artists we could document so far for the HSCA’s exhibitions between 1929 and 1932 more than 22.414 cross-linked solo- and group-exhibitions of these artists from 1880 up to the present at many exhibition venues in North America, in Europe, and Asia in our artist-info database.

Examples how artist-info could be helpful for your research

 A. Everett ‘Chick’ Austin did show in 1930 Richard B. Fuller – 4D – Dymaxion House, Modern Mexican Art, Modern German Art, and Photography 1930 in Hartford immediately after their presentation in Cambridge. Look up Wadsworth Atheneum and its exhibition history on artist-info.
 The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art was collaborating with New York galleries. Look up e.g. Julien Levy Gallery with its exhibitions and their artists on artist-info.
 Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau: The Bauhaus exhibition at the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art in December 1930 was not only the first in the United States, it was as well its first retrospective: Weimar was closed in 1925, Walter Gropius did step down as director April 1, 1928, and the NSDAP did close down the Bauhaus in Dessau in 1932.
   The next important Bauhaus retrospective was at the MoMA in December 1938, organized and installed by the artist Herbert Bayer. At the exhibition’s news conference on December 3, 1938, Walter Gropius, then chairman of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, was the most prominent speaker. You may want to compare the artists of these two early retrospectives by looking up The Bauhaus 1919–1928 at the MoMA and at the HSCA, or use artist-info Main Search to look up exhibitions related to the query Bauhaus, with a result of more than 48 exhibitions and their artists.
 You may want to look up the exhibitions and their artists of Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden which supplied the large selection of prints in the Modern German Art exhibition.
 Photography 1930: You may want to compare the artists in the HSCA exhibition with Foto-Auge by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, to which Lincoln Kirstein refers to in his ‘Introductory Note’. Foto-Auge was published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in May 1929. Lincoln Kirstein describes in his text the importance of “simple clarity in documentary form” and “the contemporary consciousness of time” the camera offers, but wants to show as well with the artists in his exhibition that the artistic use of the camera has reached a new quality.
   More insight on photography and the ‘new vision’ can be found with our survey  The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach and Thomas Walther Collection – Avant-Garde Photography in the 1920s & 1930s

Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

Each exhibition with This exhibition on opens the exhibition's individual page,
with each artist's full name, link to the artist's exhibition history on, and additional links, e.g. Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity or other Authority Control.
* Artists listed in original Harvard Society for Contemporary Art catalog.
To be sure that the list of artists of exhibitions isn't incomplete we continue looking up original archival material.
Last update March 20, 2018
19.02. - 15.03.1929 This exhibition on An Exhibition of 'American Art' *   1
Oils: Bellows, Benton, Davies, Hopper, Hopkinson, Kent, Miller, O'Keeffe, Prendergast, Robinson, Sloan, Speicher, Sterne.
Sculpture: Archipenko, Lachaise, Laurent.
Drawings and Watercolors: Burchfield, Demuth, Hopper, Kent, Marin, Sterne.
Prints (Etchings, Lithographs, Woodcuts, Photographs): Bellows, Davies, Hopper, Kent, Lankes, Marin, Sloan, Sterne, Stieglitz.
Decorative Arts: Deskey, Locher, Poor, Schoen.
19.03. - 12.04.1929
School of Paris
This exhibition on An Exhibition of the School of Paris 1910–1928 *   2
Oils: Beaudin, Bonnard, Braque, Chirico, Dufy, Friesz, Gris, Gromaire, Kisling, Laurencin, Lurçat, Man Ray, Marcoussis, Masereel, Mauny, Metzinger, Miró, Modigliani, Pascin, Rouault, Segonzac, Soutine, Vlaminck.
Drawings and Watercolors: Dufresne, Fresnaye, Lhote, Léger, Vergé-Sarrat.
Sculpture: Brâncusi, Despiau, Maillol, Orloff.
Prints (Etchings, Lithographs, Woodcuts): Bonnard, Braque, Derain, Dufy, Gromaire, Kisling, Laurencin, Lhote, Maillol, Masereel, Matisse, Pascin, Rouault, Segonzac, Vergé-Sarrat, Vlaminck.
Decorative Art: Dufy, Dunand, Lalique, Legrain, Linossier, Marinot, Puiforcat, Templier.
April - 09.05.1929This exhibition on Maurice Prendergast
20.05. - 24.05.1929This exhibition on Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House

Fine Books and Illustrations from modern German Presses, 1907–1928 *
Bremer Press, Cranach Press, Ernst Ludwig Press, Ratio Press, Kleukens Press, Rupprecht Press, Janus Press, Ernst Engel Press, Juniperus Press, Officina Serpentis Press, Rudolfinische Press, Marcus Behmer Press, and Oda Weibrecht Press.
(Traveling Show)
Harvard graduates
Including two watercolors by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin.
17.10. - 01.11.1929
Painting and Sculpture
This exhibition on An Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by the School of New York 1920–1930 *
Paintings: Blume, Coleman, Davis, Dickinson, DuBois, Fiene, Glackens, Hirsch, Kane, Karfiol, Kroll, Kuhn, Kuniyoshi, Luks, Rosen, Schmidt, Schnakenburg, Sheeler, Simkovitch, Tucker, Weber.
Sculpture: Calder, Lachaise, Noguchi, Sterne, Storrs, Talcott, W. Zorach.
Prints: P. Bacon, Coleman, Davis, Fiene, Kuhn, Kuniyoshi, Weber, M. Zorach.
07.11. - 27.11.1929 This exhibition on Derain Matisse Picasso Despiau.   3
06.12. - 30.12.1929 This exhibition on American Cartoonists and Caricaturists
Arno, Bacon, Bairnsfather, Barton, Calder, Carlisle, Collier, Covarrubias, Darling [Ding], Dove, Fisher, Fruch, Haupt, Held Jr., Hoskinson, Irvin, Karass, Kirby, Kronengold, Low, Miskey, Nagle, Odie, Rea.   4
10.01. - 25.01.1930 This exhibition on Japanese and English Pottery and Weaving
Cardew, Hamada, Leach, Pleydell-Bouverie.   5
27.01. - 04.02.1930This exhibition on Alexander Calder
04.03. - 15.03.1930This exhibition on Watercolors by a Group of Five
Chase, Cutler, Hopkinson, Pepper, Perkins - Sculpture by Noguchi.
12.03. - 14.03.1930 This exhibition on Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House
Updated model of Dymaxion House.   6
21.03. - 12.04.1930 This exhibition on Modern Mexican Art *
Ángel, Charlot, Goitia, Guerrero, Mérida, Orozco, Pacheco, Posada, Revueltas, Rivera, Siqueiros, Tamayo.   7
17.04. - 10.05.1930 This exhibition on Modern German Art *   8
Paintings (Oils, Drawings, Watercolors): Beckmann, Grosz, Heckel, Hofer, Kaus, Kirchner, Klee, Kokoschka, Kolbe, Mueller, Nolde, Pechstein, Rée, Rohlfs, Schmidt-Rottluff, Schulze-Soelde, Schwichtenberg.
Prints: Barlach, Baumeister, Boehle, Corinth, Dix, Feininger, Grosz, Großmann, Heise, Hofer, Hofmann, Kandinsky, Klee, Klemm, Kokoschka, Lehmbruck, Liebermann, Michel, Mueller, Nolde, Pechstein, Schmidt-Rottluff, Schrimpf, Sintenis, Thoma.
Sculpture: Amstem (Adams), Belling, di Fiori, Kolbe, Lehmbruck, Sintenis.
15.10. - 31.10.1930 Exhibition of American Folk Painting in Connection with the Massachusetts Tercentenary Celebration   9
07. - 29.11.1930
Photography 1930
This exhibition on Photography 1930 *   10
Photographs: Abbott, Atget, Beaton, Bourke-White, Bruehl, Evans, Gerlach, Hoyningen-Huené, MacDonald, Man Ray, Modotti, Móhóly-Nagy, Rittase, Schell, Sheeler, Steichen, Steiner, Stieglitz, Strand, Ulmann, Weston.
Aerial, Astronomical, Press, X-Ray (Sections with alltogether 29 anonymous photogrpahs)
Magazines: Vanity Fair, Vogue, Fortune, The New Yorker, Harpers Bazar et. al.
December 1930 - 15.01.1931
This exhibition on Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau *   11
Paintings and Drawings (Color Prints, Drawings, Etchings, Color Lithographs, Lithographs, Oils, Watercolors, Woodcuts): Borchert, L. Feininger, Itten, Kandinsky, Klee, Marcks, Schlemmer, Schreyer.
Typography: Bayer.
Decorative Arts and Photgraphs of Decorative Arts: Classen, Brandt, Nösselt, Stölzl.
Photographs: Th. L. Feininger, and Photographs of the Bauhaus Buildings.
Photographs of Paintings by: Albers, L. Feininger, Muche, Bayer, Klee, Kandinsky.
Books and Periodicals: Bayer, Clauss, Doesburg, Gleizes, Gropius, Kandinsky, Klee, Moholy-Nagy, Malewitsch, Mondrian, Oud, Schlemmer.
23.01. - 13.02.1931This exhibition on Pablo Picasso
40 Drawings, etchings, lithographs, and facsimiles
February 1931Harvard graduates
21.02. - 21.03.1931This exhibition on Paintings by Nine Americans
Carroll, Eilshemius, Gibbs, Kantor, Kopman, Marsh, McFee, Orr, Tobey.
(22nd HSCA Exhibition)
27.03. - 18.04.1931
England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales
This exhibition on England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, 1890–1930. Painting, Drawing, Sculpture *
Conder, Dobson, Epstein, Etchells, Fry, Gaudier-Brzeska, Gill, Gore, Grant, Hunt, John, John, Keating, Lewis, McCance, McEvoy, Meninsky, Munnings, Nash, Nevinson, Nicholls, Roberts, Rothenstein, Russell, Sickert, Underwood, Wyndham, Yeats.   12
November 1931This exhibition on Modern Painting in Review
Cézanne, Degas, Derain, Gauguin, Gogh, Kandinsky, Léger, Marin, Matisse, Monet, Picasso, Renoir, Seurat.
December 1931This exhibition on Abstraction *
Archipenko, Bauer, Belling, Brâncusi, Braque, Chagall, Chirico, El Greco, Gauguin, Gris, Lachaise, Léger, Lurçat, Masson, Metzinger, Móhóly-Nagy, Mondiran, O'Keeffe, Picasso.
January 1932This exhibition on Pablo Picasso
'Metamorphoses' by Ovid: Drawings, copper plates, etchings, artist proofs.
February 1932 This exhibition on Surrealism
Atget, Bayer, Boiffard, Chirico, Cocteau, Cornell, Dalí, Ernst, Howard, Lynes, Man Ray, Móhóly-Nagy, Parry, Picasso, Roy, Tabard, Umbo, Viollier.   13
21.03. - 02.04.1932This exhibition on Architecture and Interiors
Gropius, Howe, Lescaze, Frank Lloyd Wright (incomplete artist list).
18.04. - 14.05.1932This exhibition on Paintings by Modern American Artists
Ganso, Davis, Karfiol, Kantor, Marsh.
September 1932This exhibition on Ben Shahn
Pictorial Treatment of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, 23 gouaches.
October 1932Photography Show (Soviet Art)
November 1932Stage Sets and Costume Design

Our sources for this exhibition timeline

* Artists listed in original Harvard Society for Contemporary Art catalog.
Each artist's full name is listed on the  This exhibition on exhibition's page.
- Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints - Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943', Yale University Press, 1995.
- 'The Harvard Crimson' website, Cambridge, MA.
- 'Lincoln Kirstein - The Published Writings' website, Eakins Press Foundation, New York, NY.
- The National Gallery of Art Library (Washington D.C.), the MoMA Library and the Metropolitan Museum of Art Thomas J. Watson Library (New York), the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (New Haven) among others.

Footnotes - Additional Sources
1 - Catalog text 'Note' [unsigned], page 4, by Lincoln Kirstein.   
2 - Catalog text 'Note' [unsigned], page 4, by Lincoln Kirstein.   
3 - Catalog text [Notes on the artists, unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.   
4 - Artists listed in: The Harvard Crimson, 'Art Society Displays American Cartoons - Exhibition by Harvard Society of Contemporary Art Opens Today in Rooms of Organization'; December 6, 1929.
Transcription: Aladjalow > David Low (1891 - 1963), Ding > Jay Darling (1876 - 1962).   
5 - Artists listed in: Clark, Garth: 'Cardew in America', Interpreting Ceramics, Issue 3, 2002 (Issue 3 covers Conference Papers & Reports of 'The Michael Cardew Centenary Symposium'; University of Wales, Aberstwyth, UK, 27-28 June 2001)   
6 - Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge. (Gaddis, Eugene R.: 'Magician of the Modern. Chick Austin and the Transformation of the Arts in America', Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2000, p. 140)   
7 - Modern Mexican Art was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 140)   
8 - Catalog text 'Historical Background' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden, provided the large selection of prints for this exhibition.
Modern German Art (1/3), (2/3), and (3/3) was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge from 19.05. – 02.06.1930. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 140)   
9 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Exhibition title in Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints': Folk Painting of Three Centuries   
10 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [and notes on the photographers; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Lincoln Kirstein does refer in his 'Introductory Note' to Foto-Auge by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in May 1929. Photography 1930 shows the importance of "simple clarity in documentary form" and "the contemporary consciousness of time" the camera offers, but wants to show as well that the artistic use has reached a new quality.
Photography 1930 was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge in December 1930. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 141)   
11 - The catalog courtesy: National Gallery of Art Library, David K. E. Bruce Fund, Washington D.C..
The Bauhaus exhibition was discontinued on Saturday, January 17 [Saturday, January 15] [Source: The Harvard Crimson, 'Exhibition by Picasso will open next week'; Saturday, January 15, 1931]. Public opening of the Picasso exhibition on Friday, January 23. A private exhibition of Picasso pictures will precede the public opening Thursday, January 22].
Catalog text 'Introduction' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
The Harvard Society Bauhaus exhibition was shown subsequently at John Becker Gallery, 520 Madison Avenue at 53rd Street, New York, Bauhaus - 1919–1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau, January 20 - February 10, 1931.
For the exhibition at John Becker Gallery the Harvard Society Bauhaus catalog was reprinted with the gallery's address on the cover. Lincoln Kirstein's name was given as both the writer of the catalog's text and the designer of the cover (Source: Weber, Nicolas Fox, p. 118].
The third venue of the traveling exhibition was Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, March 13 - 28, 1931, at The Arts Club of Chicago.   
12 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Exhibition title in Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints': Modern Art from Britain   
13 - Artists listed in: Schaffner, Ingrid and Jacobs, Lisa (editor): 'Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery', The MIT Press, Cambridge 1998, p. 173.
Surrealism was shown before Cambridge at Julien Levy Gallery, New York, entitled Surréalisme, 09.-29.01.1932   
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The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach and Thomas Walther Collection – Avant-Garde Photography in the 1920s & 1930s

Analytics / Collector / History / Research
Photomontage of the Wolkenbügel by El Lissitzky, 1925 (or 1923)

Photomontage of the Wolkenbügel by El Lissitzky, 1925 (or 1923), © public domain

The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and Thomas Walther Collection

(Blog post updated January 23, 2018)

   This survey doesn’t examine exclusively individual works of some selected photo artists. It looks at the complete list of shown artists in many thousand exhibitions with the help of artist-info database and provides like this a new, so far impossible insight.

   The idea for this survey was born when I read about Cornelius Gurlitt, the art historian (Nischwitz 1850–1938 Dresden), Hildebrand Gurlitt, the museum director, Kunstverein director, and art dealer (Dresden 1895–1956 Oberhausen), and Cornelius Gurlitt, the art collector (Hamburg 1932–2014 München) in Maurice Philip Remy’s book “Der Fall Gurlitt – Die wahre Geschichte über Deutschlands größten Kunstskandal” 1 about their life. Based on intense research the book shows how much went wrong in the case Gurlitt.
   The artists of the photography collection of Kurt Kirchbach (Senftenberg (Niederlausitz) 1891–1967 Freiburg i.Br.), initiated and directed by Hildebrand Gurlitt and exhibited by him as director of the Kunstverein in Hamburg, from January 10 – February 14, 1932 as Internationale Foto-Ausstellung, Kurt Kirchbach are still waiting to be known in all details. 2 As an experienced witness of the art world of his time Hildebrand Gurlitt’s position regarding ‘new photography’, the ‘new vision’ is of particular interest for us today.
   Another collection covering avant-garde photography of the 20s and 30s is the Thomas Walther Collection at the MoMA. It is a selection made by Thomas Walther (*1950), a young German photographer who had moved to New York in 1977 and later became a member of the Museum’s Committee on Photography. His collection joined the MoMA’s collection in 2001 by proposal of former Chief Curator of Photography Peter Galassi. The collection’s photographs were subject to a four years in depth research and restoration project and exhibition which took place December 13, 2014 – April 19, 2015, entitled “Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection, 1909–1949”, with its own website
   The collection Cornelius Gurlitt inherited from his father Hildebrand Gurlitt after his sudden death in 1956 did include paintings, drawings and prints but no photography. Throughout his life Hildebrand Gurlitt was a passionate collector of mostly contemporary drawings and prints and could support numerous exhibitions with loans. The new vision in the field of photography after WWI wasn’t an international nor European movement. It was bound to German art movements and the pace of industrial development. However, the use of photography by artists and its development as media continued in other countries, too.

   Photography as a media became the ideal mirror for this pace by not only documenting it but to enrich the imagery as well with a new esthetic formula and language. Hildebrand Gurlitt was able to select by profound knowledge and talent on the basis of the artist’s œuvre, but the initiative for the photography collection may have come more from Kurt Kirchbach’s side, head of a successful automobile parts company. Hildebrand Gurlitt may have seen as well that his passion for paintings, drawings and prints, of which Kurt Kirchbach was as well a collector, are part of a well developed market whereas photography at this time left no footprint in the art market. Film und Foto in Stuttgart in spring 1929 was much more a kaleidoscope of new flourishing social and industrial self-understanding than a well organized art exhibition – in contrary to ‘Fotografie der Gegenwart’ at the Folkwang Museum Essen in January of 1929. Read below why this was the much better place to go to.

Two important photography collections covering the 20s and 30s
One question: Which insight offers the juxtaposition of the collection’s artists?

   The Kirchbach Photography Collection was a child of its time with its innovative visions the Walther Collection was born 50 years after this innovative period and is a retrospective approach.

How to compare the two collections?

   The artists are an important key information: Who are the artists in the Kurt

Kirchbach Collection? Who are the artists in the Thomas Walther collection? See the table below.
   Did they become part of the two collections because they were meant to be important, influential, experimental, what happened to them and their work in the past 90 years? Were they forgotten, were they important for a specific period, or was their work appreciated across many decades?
     A possible approach could be to compare auction results of the artists. From a sales point of view a good idea, but hopeless regarding the profile of the artists and their positioning in the public and art historical presence, as our survey  Are Auctions a good place to buy Contemporary Art? could show.
      Analyzing the individual photographs and their role in the artist’s œuvre could provide more insight into the collector’s personal taste and selection.
       This survey uses artist-info‘s exhibition documentation of the artists and exhibition venues to juxtapose the two collections. Looking up with artist-info the artists shown to the public in group-exhibitions is an important source of information to find out more about profiles, positioning and the development of artists, and the exhibition venue.
   Up to the present artist-info knows for the 82 artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection, which are identified up to now, more than 2.910 exhibitions, for the 147 artists of the Thomas Walther Collection more than 5.840 either solo- or group-exhibitions, organized by galleries, museums, or non-profit venues.
   To avoid any misunderstanding: Although this survey uses numbers and tables for its analytical approach – by the way figures which always existed but have never been documented in a database – we know as well most of the exhibition catalogs documented with artist-info and therefore the photographs in case they were illustrated, or the artist’s œuvre. Instead of name dropping of the Top 10 this survey sheds a different light on the two collections and on the 20s and 30s, summarized at the end in the chapter ‘Unframing the world’.

Hildebrand Gurlitt

   The first occupation after finishing his art history studies under Rudolf Kautzsch at the Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main was his appointment as director of the König-Albert-Museum, Zwickau in April 1925. The 1914 inaugurated museum offered for Hildebrand Gurlitt the most advantages opportunity to reorganize the older paintings and parts of the existing collection and to add a collection of contemporary art, a domain for which already his father had owned important reputation. Although he became famous with three volumes on Barock architecture as part of ‘Geschichte der neueren Baukunst / by Jacob Burckhardt and Wilhelm Lübke’, Cornelius Gurlitt was also a well established art critic. His comment in his book Internationale Kunstausstellung zu Berlin 1891 3 in 1892 did blame the missing younger Norwegian artists, ‘the most advanced Realists’, among them Edvard Munch. He must have been aware of one of the first appearances of the new and ‘unofficial art’ in Berlin, the exhibition Vereinigung der XI in April 1892 at Galerie Eduard Schulte (Werner Doede, in Berlin – Ort der Freiheit für die Kunst (1/6), (2/6), (3/6), (4/6), (5/6), (6/6), Neue Nationalgalerie, September 1960, preface 4). Back in Dresden in 1893 as professor at the ‘Königlich Sächsischen Technischen Hochschule’ four of his arhitecture students founded June 7, 1905 the famous artist group ‘Brücke’: Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.
   With this background and due to his talent it was not too difficult for Hildebrand Gurlitt to build up a network in favor of his new task as museum director with other art institution officials, art dealers, as well as with artists. His first exhibition in Zwickau October 1925 was the work of Max Pechstein (Zwickau 1881 – 1955 West-Berlin).
   His ambition to build up his connections must have been immense and not only related to his duties as museum director. This includes his eye for photography and the effort to proof his connoisseurship and instinct for artistic quality by building up a photography collection for Kurt Kirchbach, entrepreneur of automobile parts in Dresden. In sharp contrast to his art world activities was his struggle in the museum’s daily administrative life: The city parliament of Zwickau ended his contract as museum director in May 1929 with effect of April 1, 1930. This same month on May 18, 1929 opened Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in Stuttgart (until July 7) to which Gurlitt and Kirchbach traveled to discover new tendencies in contemporary photography. See below Beaumont Newhall’s comment.
   Not to forget to mention: The MoMA opened only one week after the ‘Black Tuesday’, followed by the 10-year ‘Great Depression’, on November 7, 1929 with Cézanne – Gauguin – Seurat – van Gogh, enjoying during the 4 weeks approx. 47.000 visitors.
   In a short period of time Hildebrand Gurlitt must have gathered a lot of information about contemporary photography and new currents. His possibilities to know what’s going on in the art world and in particular regarding photography may not be underestimated. For example the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo (NY) was showing in 1910 an International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography – Invitation Section (1/2), Open Section (2/2) with 37 photo artists in the ‘Invitation Section’. Only seven artists (Malcolm Arbuthnot, Walter Benington, Archibald Cochrane, Dudley J. Johnston, Frederick H. Pratt, Frank H. Read, Katharine Sheward Stanbery) are not present in the famous collection of Ernst Juhl (Hamburg 1850 – 1915 Hamburg), today part of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg and Kunstbibliothek Berlin – Photography Collection. See below Beaumont Newhall’s comment.

Comparing the two collections – Photography in the 20s and 30s

   The before said in mind the Kurt Kirchbach Collection organized and directed by Hildebrand Gurlitt becomes even more eminent and valuable as a testimony of its time.
   Unfortunately the list of artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection is not complete due to the turmoil in WWII. The artist-info list of 82 artists is based on the ‘Helene Anderson Collection’ catalog (Sotheby’s auction May 1997) and findings in one auction at Villa Grisebach, Berlin, 2005 and two auctions at Christie’s, London, in 2008. 5 A most intriguing question however remains: Which artists are missing to document in full the Kurt Kirchbach Collection? 6 
   The Thomas Walther Collection’s artist-info list includes 147 artists.

The first question: Which artists are part of both collections?

The Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) and the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) have only 28 artists in common which are highlighted in gray in the table below.
The artists in both collections are born before 1910, with the exception of 4 artists in the Thomas Walther Collection: Hajo Rose (1910 – 1989), Arthur Siegel (1913 – 1978), Stefan Themerson (1910 – 1988), Raoul Ubac (1910 – 1985).
More details on matches and mismatches below.

   The challenge to select photography for the collection must have been the same for both, Hildebrand Gurlitt and Kurt Kirchbach. Gurlitt was used to explore the œuvre of a painter or a sculptor by categories and image language. The same can be said for the art collector Kurt Kirchbach. Furthermore Kirchbach’s horizon and compass did include as well the fast industrial and technical development of the 20s and 30s, which was communicated and discussed through a flood of photographs. What they saw in Stuttgart in May 1929, the Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes exhibition and in Foto-Auge, the photography book by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, published parallel to Film und Foto span this range of imagery: Photography as an artist’s media and photography showing the world in its new industrial and social pace. To describe the role of photography in the 20s Herbert Molderings referred in 1978 to Alexander Rodtchenko (‘Ways of Contemporary Photography’; 1928): “It is as though only the camera were able to depict life as it is today.” 7 

‘Film und Foto’ and ‘Foto-Auge’

   Beaumont Newhall (Lynn, MA 1908 – 1993 Santa Fe, NM) became in 1940 under Alfred H. Barr the first curator of MoMA’s photography department. He organized in 1937 the retrospective Photography 1839–1937, in Sep-Nov 1938 American Photographs by Walker Evans, and in Dec 1940 – Jan 1941 together with Ansel Adams Sixty Photographs – A Survey of Camera Esthetics, a selection of MoMA’s photography collection acquired since its opening in 1929.
   In Karl Steinorth’s ‘Photographen der 20er Jahre’, 1979 8, Beaumont Newhall states in the preface: “The 1929 Stuttgart Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes exhibition was summarizing the development in photography of the past decade very similar to the International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography – Invitation Section (1/2), Open Section (2/2), at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo in November 1910.”
   Taking Newhall’s statement into account the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) includes 40 of the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart, the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) includes 42 of the 232 Stuttgart Film und Foto artists.
   Of the 40 and 42 artists both collections have only 19 of the ‘Film und Foto’ show artists in common (in total they have 28 artists in common): Florence Henri, André Kertész, Germaine Krull, Helmar Lerski, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, Lucia Móhóly, Walter Peterhans, Robert Petschow, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Aleksander Rodchenko, Werner Rohde, Cami Stone, Sasha Stone, Umbo, Dziga Vertov, Edward Weston, Yva, Willy Zielke.
   Regarding the photography book Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) includes 16 of the 56 photograph authors, the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) includes also 16 of the 56 photograph authors, having in common 11: Hans Finsler, Florence Henri, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Walter Peterhans, Robert Petschow, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Sasha Stone, Umbo, Edward Weston.
   Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye includes 76 illustrated photographs by 56 “authors” (12 are anonymous), 35 of them are part of the ‘Film und Foto’ exhibition, 21 (of which are 8 anonymous) not. The advantage are the illustrations which are missing in the ‘Film und Foto’ catalog. The rather strange selection shows: Anything goes, photography is the sole media, a new and promising industry.

‘Fotografie der Gegenwart’, Essen

   A much better choice should not be overseen: Already in Jan – Feb 1929 the Folkwang Museum, Essen did show Fotografie der Gegenwart (later in 1929 shown at Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover; Whitechapel Gallery, London; Kunstverein Frankfurt a.M.), a not less important photography exhibition!
   Of the 66 exhibited artists are 28 part of the Kirchbach Collection, and 24 are part of the Walther Collection. Of these 28 and 24 artists are 16 artists present in both collections.
   Still many decades after the early summer of 1929 Stuttgart’s ‘Film und Foto’ (232 artistst, of which artist-info know more than 6.140 exhibitions) is reffered to as the only true place to go to for photography of the Weimarer Republik era. Beaumont Newhall is not the only one. Regarding the shown artists our statistics reveal that Fotografie der Gegenwart (66 artists, of which artist-info knows more than 3.000 exhibitions) was the better place to go to for a collector.
   Comparing only the artists with 10 and more exhibitions between 1880 and 2017 of the 232 and 66 artists in artist-info database 2/3 (63%, 145) of the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart are below this margin of 10, whereas 2/3 (68%, 45) of the 66 artists shown in Essen had 10-427 exhibitions between 1880 and 2017, following artist-info database, and they are still important today for the art world.

Walker Evans

   The first exhibition of Walker Evans (St. Louis, MO 1903 – 1975 New Haven, CT) in New York was at John Becker Gallery in April 1931. Before he was already shown by his friend Lincoln Kirstein in Photography 1930 at the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art.  9  American Photographs by Walker Evans was the first one man show of a photographer to date at the MoMA in September 1938, if his show in the permanent architecture room in Nov-Dec 1933 of Nineteenth Century American Houses (gift of Lincoln Kirstein) is looked at as an only smaller spontaneous exhibit, concurrent with the Edward Hopper Retrospective and with Wilhlem Lehmbruck’s exhibit of Emporsteigender Jüngling (1913). 10 Thomas Mabry, Executive Director of the MoMA comments Evans’ exhibition in September 1938 by saying: ‘Although known and admired among a small group for ten years, Evans’ work has not received the recognition so far that has come to many of his contemporaries. In this exhibition the Museum hopes that a major photographic talent will be revealed to a wider public.” 11 
   Walker Evans did not show his work in Stuttgart in May 1929, was not present in the Foto-Auge book, but his photographs were shown in Munich, Das Lichtbild, Jun 5 – Sep 7, 1930, Münchener Bund and Verein Ausstellungspark München E.V., curator Josef M. Jurinek, and in Basel in Die neue Fotografie, Jan 11 – Feb 8, 1931, Gewerbemuseum Basel.
   Did Hildebrand Gurlitt and Kurt Kirchbach travel to Basel and Munich? Did they recognize Walker Evans and purchased his work for the collection? Is he part of still missed rest of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection? In contrary and because he was starting 50 years later Thomas Walther did include Walker Evans in his collection.

‘Photography 1930’

   One month before the first Bauhaus exhibition in December 1930 in the USA, Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau, which was at the same time its first retrospective, Lincoln Kirstein opened with his two partners John Walker III, and Edward M. M. Warburg at their Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Inc. in Cambridge (MA) on November 7, 1930 the Photography 1930 exhibition. More details on this important and influential avant-garde gallery in our blog post Blog post The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932. Lincoln Kirstein refers in the exhibition catalog’s ‘Introductory Note’ to Frank Roh’s and Jan Tschichold’s book Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye. The book was published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in Stuttgart in May 1929. Kirstein describes in his text the importance of “simple clarity in documentary form” and “the contemporary consciousness of time” the camera offers, but he wants to show as well with his selection of photo artists that the artistic use of the camera has reached a new quality, that of eqaul status with other contemporary arts. Although very well informed about the European art scene he focused on American photographers, among them his friend Walker Evans.

Photography besides other media

   Exciting to see photographs by Max Peiffer Watenphul and of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart in the Kirchbach Collection.
   It apparently was important to Hildebrand Gurlitt to see photography not only as an isolated artist’s media but as a media concurrently with painting, drawings and prints in an artist’s œuvre.

‘Subjektive Fotografie’

   The Subjektive Fotografie – Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie exhibition in Saarbrücken in summer 1951, organized by Otto Steinert (among others with a text by Franz Roh: ‘The academic quarrel about photography’) with 148 artists shown in three sections, gave an important first overview after WWII on ‘neue Fotografie’ in the 20s and 30s. The exhibition defines ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ as the artistic domain, staying in the tradition of the ‘neue Fotografie’ of the 20s, in contrast to the ‘applied’ photography (product and documentary).
   The following 5 artists are part of the Kirchbach collection: Hans Finsler, Hans Grubenbecher, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Emmanuel Sougez.
   These 6 artists are part of the Walther collection: Herbert Bayer, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Hans Finsler, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Luigi Veronesi.
   Although ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ wanted to commemorate the 20s and 30s and honoured Man Ray (1890 – 1976), László Móhóly-Nagy (1895 – 1946), and Herbert Bayer (1900 – 1985) with a special exhibition it is surprising that only 5 and 6 artists of the two collection were shown, including Man Ray, Móhóly-Nagy, and Bayer. Hans Grubenbecher had become professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg (HFBK), Hans Finsler did teach since 1932 at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zürich.
   Edward Steichen, Director of the Photography Department, was aware of the situation when he commented his exhibition 50 Photographs by 50 Photographers – Landmarks in Photographic History mid 1948 at the MoMA by saying: “Painting has influenced photography for the past century. Today this Influence is a cause of dissatisfaction to many who are more interested jn probing the potentialities that, are peculiar to the photographic medium. Such conflict in concept and point of view is an invigorating stimulus to our younger photographers.” 12 Photo collages may therefore not be part of the ‘new vision’, as they already existed in painting and added the important possibility to a photograph to escape the ‘one exposure – one image’ limit a camera is bound to. At least nearly one third (23 of 76) of the 1929 Foto-Auge book are collage works.

Top 10

   The artists of both collections were shown in many exhibitions since the 20s and 30s. artist-info database knows for the Kurt Kirchbach Collection more than 2.880 and for the Thomas Walther Collection more than 5.780 solo- and group-exhibitions at galleries, museums and non-profit venues.
   As some artists were shown more often than others we compared the artists of both collections who are documented with more than 20 exhibitions in artist-info.
   The Kirchbach Collection counts 30 artists in this range (47% of all 82 artists), the Walther Collection counts 64 (44% of all 147 artists) in the range of more than 20 exhibitions. Of 30 artists of the Kirchbach Collection 22 are as well part of the Walther Collection, except 8 of them: Imogen Cunningham, Hugo Erfurth, Andreas Feininger, Hill & Adamson, Max Peiffer Watenphul, Arkady Shaikhet, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, Brett Weston.
   The Thomas Walther Collection does include in the range of 20 and more exhibitions 64 artists (22 in common with the Kirchbach Collection), all well known artists like Herbert Bayer, Bérénice Abbott, Constantin Brâncusi, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Walker Evans, Lyonnel Feininger, August Sander, Alfred Stieglitz, Charles Sheeler, Edward Steichen, Paul Strand, to note only a few.

Visualizing the numbers

   This diagram shows 8 exhibitions and an artist-info Top 10 statistics
Bar chart comparing the artists' exhibitions of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and Thomas Walther Collection
May-Jun 1927, Neue Reklame, Jenaer Kunstverein
Mar-May 1928, Neue Wege der Photographie, Jenaer Kunstverein
Jan-Feb 1929, Fotografie der Gegenwart, Museum Folkwang, Essen
   Regarding the 66 shown artists the two collections have many more artists in common with the exhibition at the Folkwang Museum than with ‘Film und Foto’ in Stuttgart in May 1929.
May-Jul 1929, Film und Foto, Stuttgart
   The diagram makes it obvious that the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart had very limited influence on the artists selected for the two collections.
May 1929, Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye [influential Book] 
Jun-Sep 1930, Das Lichtbild, München
Nov 1930, Photography 1930, Cambridge (MA)
Jan-Feb 1931, Die neue Fotografie, Basel
Jul 1951, Subjektive Fotografie – Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie, Saarbrücken
Top 10 [artists with more than 20 exhibitions in artist-info] See previous paragraph.
Timeline Touring Exhibitions

Hildebrand Gurlitt on his exhibition in 1932, on the Kurt Kirchbach Collection, on Photography

   We would know more about the scope of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection if Hildebrand Gurlitt would have appended a list of the artists to his text in the invitation of his exhibition Internationale Foto-Ausstellung – Sammlung Kurt Kirchbach at the Kunstverein in Hamburg, in January 1932. A complete checklist of the shown prints would be even more compelling. But he did not, on purpose! 13 
   Hildebrand Gurlitt explains to the visitor in his text that this exhibition wants to document people’s unforeseeable addiction to consume images, due to the unique capability of photography to serve as a true imprint of everybody’s daily life, the industry, and the world, which photography has developed during the past 10 years. He explains that he wants to demonstrate with his exhibition the new photography as a mass phenomenon in which the individual artist’s profile is of no importance. Instead of providing a list of individual artists who incorporate with their masterworks the ‘new vision’, he provides a list of themes which build the easy to understand structure of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection and this exhibition, that photography is able to cover a universal basis: Berühmte Köpfe, Künstler, Frauen der Zeit, Männer der Zeit, Kinder, Tiere, Pflanzen, Hochgebirge, Wasser und Dünen, Landschaften, Stadt und Architektur, Flugaufnahmen, Industrie und Technik, Film, Stilleben, Wiedergaben des Stofflichen, Montagen, Fotogramme, Abstraktes, Tanz, Sport, Akte und Körperdetails, Reportagen. [Famous heads, artists, women of our time, men of our time, children, animals, plants, mountains, water and dunes, landscape, cityscape and architecture, aerial photography, industry and technique, film, still life, reproduction of material, montage, photograms, abstraction, dance, sports, nude and body details, news coverage].
   The collection aims to provide an overview from the beginnings of photography up to the present. He regrets this hasn’t been achieved so far as the collection was started only 2 years ago in 1929 and therefore is concentrating on contemporary and recent work. In contrary to the more recent work the prints from the early days of photography have already reached remarkably high prices. He is convinced that the contemporary photography will reach these higher prices in future time, near or far, as well.
   For Gurlitt the individual photography artist is much less important as for example in painting. Photography of his time, the ‘new photography’, is based on true craftsmanship. Even more important to him: The new photography is capable to capture the true life, face to face, the world with all its facets in which we are living today, points of view man on his two feet isn’t able to capture. It replaces any superficial salon painting or made up and retouched staged photography.
   For him, in photography creativity and master works arise not from the artist’s studio but from natural science and news reportage. His notion would apply perfectly well to Karl Blossfeldt who at the beginning in the 1890s was documenting flowers for educating purpose, as the exhibition Form Follows Flower – Moritz Meurer, Karl Blossfeldt & Co. at the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin reveals.
   In the early twenties and very much as part of the new era of photography and the ‘new vision’ he shows his flower prints as artwork in an exhibition in April 1926 at Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, entitled Exoten, Kakteen und Janthur – Plastiken aus Afrika und Neuginea und Pflanzenphotographien von Karl Blossfeldt.

Is the Kurt Kirchbach exhibition showing art?

   It is important to Hildebrand Gurlitt to ask this question in the invitational text and to give an answer: He accepts that photography may have the quality of ‘free’ art but may be with photograms very close to abstract painting or with photomontage close to constructivist or surrealist painting. However, for him the new quality photography incorporates not only reproducing the already visible, but that photography is able to visualize new, strong and impressive perspectives of and about the world, depending on the creativity of the one behind the camera. This is what he wants the visitor of the Kurt Kirchbach exhibition to recognize.

Unframing the world

   Hildebrand Gurlitt must have been aware of what Edward Steichen said in summer 1948 (see above ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ last chapter): Where does photography parallel painting and drawing, where does it develop its own language? ‘Film und Foto’ in Stuttgart apparently wanted to encompass everything of today’s life, leaving painting behind, unframing the world, with the danger of getting lost.
   Like already mentioned above for the collection of Pictorial Photography by Ernst Juhl in Hamburg the international exchange shuoldn’t be underestimated. Film und Foto in Stuttgart in 1929 had its precursors in the An International Exhibition of Modern Art Assembled by the Société Anonyme, Nov 1926 – Jan 1927 at the Brooklyn Museum, and the Machine-Age Exposition, May 1927, at the Steinway Hall on 57th Street, organized by Jane Heap. Regarding the impact of these major events on photography Maria Morris Hambourg said: “This extraordinary exhibition [Machine-Age Exposition] demonstrated in New York what had long been clear at the Bauhaus: Modern art, modern design, and modern life were of a piece, and the machine was the principal agent and symbol of the modern condition. This understanding would give photography, then considered an eexemplary machine age art, wider appreciaton in the 1930s.” 14 
   Trained in the field of painting and drawing Hildebrand Gurlitt was able to not fall for Stuttgart’s line and looked for Kurt Kirchbach’s Collection for photography using a language in its own right. Not only Fotografie der Gegenwart in Essen in January 1929 was a more selective approach. Already Walter Dexel’s (the artist, the curator) exhibitions at the Kunstverein Jena, Neue Sachlichkeit (May 1926), Neue Reklame (May 1927), and Neue Wege der Photographie (Mar 1928) were important markers and stand for the positive side of unframing the world, with the means photography and a ‘new vision’.
   More than 50 years later Thomas Walther could embrace many new and in depth findings, for example Frank Van Deren Coke’s exhibition Avant-Garde Photography in Germany 1919–1939 at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, in Dec 1980.

The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and the Thomas Walther Collection

Kurt Kirchbach Collection
[incomplete artist list]   Updated January 7, 2018
(Exh.)Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection, 1909–1949
MoMA, December 13, 2014 – April 19, 2015
[28 artists in both collections]
1Ballé, Oskar [Rapid Foto Ballé] (2)1Abbott, Bérénice (1898 - 1991)(103)
2Biermann, Aenne Sternefeld (1898 - 1933)(35)2Álvarez-Bravo, Manuel (1902 - 2002)(72)
3Block, Fritz (1889 - 1955)(5)3Arndt, Gertrud (1903 - 2000)(10)
4Blossfeldt, Karl (1865 - 1932)(64)4Bauh, Aurel (1900 - 1964)(4)
5Bosshard, Walter (1892 - 1975)(5)5Bayer, Herbert (1900 - 1985)(106)
6Burchartz, Max (1887 - 1961)(50)6Bayer-Hecht, Irene (1898 - 1991)(3)
7Citroën, Paul (1896 - 1983)(31)7Beese, Lotte [Charlotte] (1903 - 1988)(9)
8Cunningham, Imogen (1883 - 1976)(57)8Biermann, Aenne Sternefeld (1898 - 1933)(35)
9Dörner, Erhard (1888 - 1930)(6)9Blanc & Demilly, [Théodore Blanc 1898-1985 & Antoine Demilly 1862-1964] (7)
10Dowschenko, Oleksandr Petrowytsch (1894 - 1956)(3)10Blanc, Georges (1)
11Erfurth, Hugo (1874 - 1948)(36)11Blossfeldt, Karl (1865 - 1932)(64)
12Feininger, Andreas (1906 - 1999)(54)12Boiffard, Jacques-André (1903 - 1961)(12)
13Feist, Werner David (1909 - 1998)(13)13Bourke-White, Margaret (1904 - 1971)(59)
14Fiedler, Franz (1885 - 1956)(12)14Bragaglia, Antonio Giulio (1890 - 1960)(14)
15Finsler, Hans (1891 - 1972)(38)15Bragaglia, Arturo (1893 - 1962)(5)
16Flachslander, F. A. (8)16Brâncusi, Constantin (1876 - 1957)(149)
17Fliptikow, (1)17Brandt, Bill (1904 - 1983)(63)
18Globophot Pressedienst, (1)18Breslauer, Marianne (1909 - 2001)(15)
19Gorny, Hein (1904 - 1967)(14)19Brigman, Anne Wardrope (1869 - 1950)(14)
20Gos, Emile (1888 - 1969)(1)20Brown, Gertrude LeRoy (1870 - 1934)(2)
21Graf, Johann (6)21Bruehl, Anton (1900 - 1982)(16)
22Gramm, Josef (*1878)(6)22Bruguière, Francis Joseph (1879 - 1945)(33)
23Grubenbecher, Hans (1913 - 1952)(2)23Bull, Clarence Sinclair (1896 - 1979)(3)
24Gutschow, Arvid (1900 - 1984)(9)24Burchartz, Max (1887 - 1961)(50)
25Gyger, Emauel (1886 - 1951)(2)25Cahun, Claude [Lucy Schwob] (1894 - 1954)(44)
26Hausmann, Raoul (1886 - 1971)(103)26Cartier-Bresson, Henri (1908 - 2004)(162)
27Heise, Hildegard (1909 - 1993)(3)27Citroën, Paul (1896 - 1983)(31)
28Henle, Fritz (1909 - 1993)(10)28Coburn, Alvin Langdon (1882 - 1966)(38)
29Henri, Florence (1893 - 1982)(71)29Collein, Edmund (1906 - 1992)(8)
30Hill & Adamson, [David Octavius Hill 1804-1870 & Robert Adamson 1821-1989] (24)30Comeriner, Erich (1907 - 1978)(19)
31Hirschel-Protsch, Günter (1902 - 1938)(6)31Content, Marjorie (1895 - 1984)(1)
32Hoinkis, Ewald (1897 - 1960)(15)32Coppola, Horacio (1906 - 2012)(11)
33Hoppé, Emil Otto (1878 - 1972)(14)33Crawford, Ralston (1906 - 1975)(34)
34Jeck, Lothar (1898 - 1983)(2)34Demachy, Robert (1859 - 1936)(11)
35Jentzsch, W. (1)35Domela, César Nieuwenhuis (1900 - 1992)(79)
36Kertész, André (1894 - 1985)(130)36Evans, Walker (1903 - 1975)(155)
37Kessler, Rudolf (1)37Feininger, Lore (1901 - 1991)(4)
38Koch, Heinrich (1896 - 1934)(3)38Feininger, Lyonel (1871 - 1956)(268)
39Koehn, Henry (1892 - 1963)(1)39Finsler, Hans (1891 - 1972)(38)
40Kratzenstein, Eduard (3)40Fridlyand, Semyon Osipovic (1905 - 1964)(11)
41Krause, Erich (2)41Funke, Jaromír (1896 - 1945)(18)
42Krull, Germaine (1897 - 1985)(46)42Grill, Karl (1889 - 1966)(1)
43Lerski, Helmar [Israel Schmuklerski] (1871 - 1956)(28)43Gutmann, John (1905 - 1988)(14)
44Lissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)(225)44Hackenschmied [Hammid], Alexander (1907 - 2004)(7)
45Man Ray, [Emmanuel Rudinski] (1890 - 1976)(429)45Hagemeyer, Johan (1884 - 1962)(4)
46Man, Felix H. [Hans Felix Sigismund Baumann] (1893 - 1985)(21)46Hahn, Paul Edmund (1897 - 1960)(2)
47Merlo, (1)47Hatláková, Jaroslava (1904 - 1989)(5)
48Mikalina, (1)48Hausmann, Raoul (1886 - 1971)(103)
49Móhóly, Lucia (1900 - 1989)(41)49Heins, John P. (1896 - 1969)(1)
50Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946)(344)50Henri, Florence (1893 - 1982)(71)
51Moral, Jean (1906 - 1999)(13)51Hirz, J. Jay (1)
52Neudatschin [Neudin], S. [Weltrundschau-Neudatschin] (3)52Hoffmann, Irene (1903 - 1971)(4)
53Peiffer Watenphul, Max (1896 - 1976)(39)53Horne, Bernard Shea (1867 - 1933)(2)
54Peterhans, Walter A. (1897 - 1960)(30)54Hoyningen-Huené, George (1900 - 1968)(16)
55Petschow, Robert (1888 - 1945)(13)55Jacobi, Lotte Johanna (1896 - 1990)(34)
56Photo Risch-Lau Bregenz (1)56Juley, Peter A. (1862 - 1937)(1)
57Presse-Photo G.M.B.H., (3)57Karmen, Roman Lasarewitsch (1906 - 1978)(4)
58Renger-Patzsch, Albert (1897 - 1966)(96)58Kepes, György (1906 - 2001)(44)
59Rodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)(195)59Kerny, István (1879 - 1963)(2)
60Rohde, Werner (1906 - 1990)(18)60Kertész, André (1894 - 1985)(130)
61Rudolph, Charlotte (1896 - 1983)(12)61Kesting, Edmund (1892 - 1970)(47)
62Scheel, Ernst (1903 - 1986)(1)62Kinszki, Imre (1901 - 1945)(2)
63Schieron, Richard (*1905)(4)63Klutsis, Gustav Gustavowitsch (1895 - 1938)(78)
64Schuitema, Paul (1897 - 1973)(13)64Korth, Fred G. (1902 - 1983)(3)
65Shaikhet [Chaïkhet], Arkady Samoylovich (1898 - 1959)(28)65Kreyenkamp, August (1875 - 1950)(8)
66Sougez, Emmanuel (1889 - 1972)(18)66Krull, Germaine (1897 - 1985)(46)
67Stone, Cami [Camille] (1892 - 1975)(8)67Lachman, Harry B. (1886 - 1975)(2)
68Stone, Sasha [Aleksander Serge Steinsapir] (1895 - 1940)(27)68Latimer, Walter R. (1880 - 1924)(2)
69Umbo, [Otto Umbehr] (1902 - 1980)(50)69Lehovec, Ji?í (1909 - 1995)(2)
70Vertov, Dziga [Denis Arkadjewitsch Kaufman] (1896 - 1954)(22)70Lerski, Helmar [Israel Schmuklerski] (1871 - 1956)(28)
71Vogel, Alfred (1)71Lindemann, Elisabeth (1879 - 1960)(1)
72Vordemberge-Gildewart, Friedrich (1899 - 1962)(109)72Lindig, Otto (1895 - 1966)(6)
73Wasow, Edmund (1879 - 1944)(7)73Lissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)(225)
74Wegener, Bettina (1)74List, Herbert (1903 - 1975)(60)
75Weller, Peter [Dr.] (*1897)(8)75Loew, Heinz (1903 - 1981)(11)
76West, Eugen (1)76Lotar, Éli [Eliazar Lotar Teodorescu] (1905 - 1969)(25)
77Weston, Brett (1911 - 1993)(43)77Lynes, George Platt (1907 - 1955)(23)
78Weston, Edward (1886 - 1958)(122)78Man Ray, [Emmanuel Rudinski] (1890 - 1976)(429)
79Weymar, Bettina (1)79Man, Felix H. [Hans Felix Sigismund Baumann] (1893 - 1985)(21)
80Windisch, Hans (1902 - 1970)(5)80Mantz, Werner (1901 - 1983)(24)
81Yva, [Else Ernestine Neuländer-Simon] (1900 - 1942)(19)81Meyer, Hannes [Hans Emil] (1889 - 1954)(11)
82Zielke, Willy Otto (1902 - 1989)(16)82Miller [Lady Penrose], Lee [Elizabeth] (1907 - 1977)(43)
83Model, Lisette (1901 - 1983)(41)
84Modotti, Tina (1896 - 1942)(41)
85Móhóly, Lucia (1900 - 1989)(41)
86Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946)(344)
87Moore, Marcel [Suzanne Malherbe] (1892 - 1972)(1)
88Moral, Jean (1906 - 1999)(13)
89Muche, Georg (1895 - 1987)(58)
90Munkácsi, Martin (1896 - 1963)(22)
91Navara, Adolf (1)
92Nerlinger [R. Nilgreen], Oskar (1893 - 1969)(46)
93Niegeman, Johan (1902 - 1977)(4)
94Painlevé, Jean (1902 - 1989)(10)
95Pap, Gyula (1899 - 1983)(9)
96Parker, Paul (1)
97Parry, Roger (1905 - 1977)(16)
98Pécsi, József (1889 - 1956)(4)
99Penson, Max (1893 - 1959)(8)
100Peterhans, Walter A. (1897 - 1960)(30)
101Petschow, Robert (1888 - 1945)(13)
102Quigley, Edward W. (1898 - 1977)(4)
103Renger-Patzsch, Albert (1897 - 1966)(96)
104Richter, Hans (1888 - 1976)(85)
105Riefenstahl, Leni (1902 - 2003)(17)
106Riess, Frieda Gertrud (1890 - 1955)(10)
107Rodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)(195)
108Roh, Franz (1890 - 1965)(35)
109Rohde, Werner (1906 - 1990)(18)
110Rose, Hajo [Hans-Joachim] (1910 - 1989)(8)
111Rössler, Jaroslav (1902 - 1990)(17)
112Roszak, Theodore J. (1907 - 1981)(46)
113Rudomine, Albert (1892 - 1975)(3)
114Ruge, Willi (1882 - 1961)(2)
115Salomon, Erich (1886 - 1944)(19)
116Sander, August (1876 - 1964)(143)
117Seeley, George Henry (1880 - 1955)(10)
118Seidenstücker, Friedrich (1882 - 1966)(20)
119Sekaer, Peter [Peter Ingemann Sekjær] (1901 - 1950)(9)
120Sheeler, Charles R. (1883 - 1965)(97)
121Shiihara, Osamu (1905 - 1974)(8)
122Siegel, Arthur (1913 - 1978)(17)
123Steichen, Edward Jean (1879 - 1973)(99)
124Steinitz, Käte Traumann (1889 - 1975)(15)
125Stieglitz, Alfred (1864 - 1946)(119)
126Stone, Cami [Camille] (1892 - 1975)(8)
127Stone, Sasha [Aleksander Serge Steinsapir] (1895 - 1940)(27)
128Strand, Paul (1890 - 1976)(90)
129Štyrský, Jind?ich (1899 - 1942)(35)
130Tabard, Maurice (1897 - 1984)(31)
131Themerson, Franciska (1907 - 1988)(19)
132Themerson, Stefan (1910 - 1988)(17)
133Ubac, Raoul (Rolf Ubach) (1910 - 1985)(56)
134Umbo, [Otto Umbehr] (1902 - 1980)(50)
135Vechten, Carl van (1880 - 1964)(8)
136Veronesi, Luigi (1908 - 1998)(80)
137Vertov, Dziga [Denis Arkadjewitsch Kaufman] (1896 - 1954)(22)
138Vobecký, František (1902 - 1991)(4)
139Walser, Andreas (1908 - 1930)(2)
140Weegee, [Arthur Fellig] (1899 - 1968)(68)
141Weston, Edward (1886 - 1958)(122)
142Witkiewicz [Witkacy], Stanis?aw Ignacy (1885 - 1939)(20)
143Wulz, Wanda (1903 - 1984)(5)
144Yamawaki, Iwao (1898 - 1987)(13)
145Yva, [Else Ernestine Neuländer-Simon] (1900 - 1942)(19)
146Zielke, Willy Otto (1902 - 1989)(16)
147Zimin, Georgij (1901 - 1985)(11)
About documenting exhibitions 1880–present see

Selection of photography exhibitions until 1950

each with all participating artists

2014This exhibition on Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection - 1909–1949
Dec 2014 - Apr 2015, Museum of Modern Art, New York
43 of 147 artists in common with the Ford Motor Company Collection / John C. Waddell Collection (70 artists)
28 of 147 artists in common with the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (82 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
1989This exhibition on The New Vision - Photography Between the World Wars, Ford Motor Company Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art - The John C. Waddell Collection
Sep - Dec 1989, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
43 of 70 artists in common with the Thomas Walther Collection (147 artists)
13 of 70 artists in common with the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (82 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
This exhibition on Kunstphotographie um 1900 - Die Sammlung Ernst Juhl
Jun - Aug 1989, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg
1964This exhibition on Kunstphotographie um 1900
Mar - Apr 1964, Museum Folkwang, Essen
1951This exhibition on Subjektive Fotografie - Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie
Jul 1951, Staatliche Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Saarbrücken
1948This exhibition on 50 Photographs by 50 Photographers
- Landmarks in Photographic History

Jul - Sep 1948, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1946This exhibition on Fotomontage von dada bis heute
Dec 1946, Galerie Gerd Rosen, Berlin
1943This exhibition on Form and Formula
Mar - Apr 1943, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati
This exhibition on Action Photography
Aug - Sep 1941, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1940This exhibition on Sixty Photographs - A Survey of Camera Esthetics
Dec 1940 - Jan 1941, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1939This exhibition on Art in Our Time: 10th Anniversary Exhibition - Photography Section
May - Sep 1939, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
This exhibition on Group of 53 Photographs by Photographers from West Coast Acquired
Apr 1939, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1938This exhibition on Walker Evans - American Photographs
Sep - Nov 1938, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1937This exhibition on Entartete Kunst
Jul 1937 - Nov 1937, Münchner Hofgarten - 'Entartete Kunst', München
This exhibition on Photography 1839-1937
Mar - Apr 1938, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1933This exhibition on Entartete Kunst
Sep - Nov 1933, Neues Rathaus - 'Entartete Kunst', Dresden
1932This exhibition on Exhibition of Portrait Gallery
Oct - Nov 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Hugo Erfurth - Photographische Künstlerbildnisse
Sep - Dec 1932, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
This exhibition on Photographs of New York by New York Photographers
May - Jun 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Modern European Photography
Feb - Mar 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Internationale Foto-Ausstellung - Sammlung Kurt Kirchbach [incomplete artist list]
Jan - Feb 1932, Kunstverein in Hamburg, Hamburg
13 of 82 artists in common with the Ford Motor Company Collection / John C. Waddell Collection (70 artists)
28 of 82 artists in common with the Thomas Walther Collection (147 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
1931This exhibition on Fotomontage
Apr - May 1931, Lichthof des ehemaligen Kunstgewerbemuseums [today Martin-Gropius-Bau], Berlin
This exhibition on Die neue Fotografie
Jan - Feb 1931, Gewerbemuseum [today: Museum für Gestaltung], Basel
1930This exhibition on Photography 1930
Nov 1930, Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Cambridge (MA) Blog post See as well our survey on the exhibition history of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art.
This exhibition on Das Lichtbild
Jun - Sep 1930, Verein Ausstellungspark München, München
This exhibition on Gezeichnet oder geknipst?
Mar - Apr 1930, Frankfurter Kunstverein - FKV, Frankfurt am Main
1929This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jul - Aug 1929, Frankfurter Kunstverein - FKV, Frankfurt am Main
This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jun 1929, Whitechapel Gallery, London
This exhibition on Foto-Auge [Influential Book]
May - Jul 1929, Ausstellungshallen auf dem Interimtheaterplatz, Stuttgart
This exhibition on Film und Foto - Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes
May - Jul 1929, Ausstellungshallen auf dem Interimtheaterplatz, Stuttgart
This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jan - Feb 1929, Museum Folkwang, Essen
1928This exhibition on Neue Wege der Photographie - Porträts, Naturaufnahmen, Fliegeraufnahmen, Wissenschaftliche Aufnahmen, Filmphotos, Photomontage, Reklamephotos
Mar - May 1928, Jenaer Kunstverein, Jena
1927This exhibition on Neue Reklame
May - Jun 1927, Jenaer Kunstverein, Jena
1923This exhibition on Große Berliner Kunstausstellung 1923 - GBK (2/2) - Novembergruppe (Landes-Ausstellungsgebäude Lehrter Bahnhof)
May - Sep 1923, Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung - GBK, Berlin
This exhibition on 55 | El Lissitzky - Max Burchartz
Jan - Feb 1923, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
1918This exhibition on Sculpture by Mrs. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whiney - Pictorial Photographs by American Artists (Auspices of Camera Club of Detroit and the Detroit Museum of Art)
Jan 1918, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit
1910This exhibition on International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography - Invitation Section
Nov - Dec 1910, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
This exhibition on International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography - Openn Section
Nov - Dec 1910, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
1905This exhibition on Internationale Ausstellung Kunstphotographischer Meisterwerke
Oct 1905, Kunsthalle Bremen
1904This exhibition on Salon d'Automne 1904 - 2ième Exposition (11/11) Photographie
Oct 1904, Grand Palais, Paris
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WWI: France and Germany using art as weapon of peace – not war

Artists / Exhibition History / History / Research

Courtesy Hamburger Kunsthalle Library, Städel Museum Library, for the 1917 catalog J. E. Wolfensberger AG, Zürich

WWI: France and Germany using art as weapon of peace – not war

The NZZ-Neue Züricher Zeitung published November 13, 2017 an article written by Robin Schwarzenbach: ‘Deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [German Culture Used as Weapon].

The article describes how during World War I newspapers, cinema and theater programs, and art-exhibitions in Switzerland were used by France and by Germany for propaganda, as an extended battle field, facilitated by Switzerland’s different region’s languages.
Following the article’s content leads to the question why the title ‘Deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [German Culture Used as Weapon] isn’t more accurate, as it describes a ping pong of activities, and exhibitions by both nations, France and Germany.
Why doesn’t it therefore read ‘Französische und deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [French and German Culture Used as Weapon]?
To remember the historical context: November 11, 2017 marks the centenary of the end of WWI.
World War I (28.07.1914 – 11.11.1918) is subject to ongoing research about how it influences history of the following decades, in particular its possible influence on the genesis of World War II (01.09.1939 – 1945).

Art-exhibitions are weapons enabling peace – not weapons of war

In contrary to NZZ’s findings French and German art-exhibitions were used as weapon of peace, not of war!
Following Robin Schwarzenbach’s text the German cultural and art-exhibition activities in Switzerland were organized by Harry Graf von Kessler (Paris 23.05.1868 – 30.11.1937 Lyon), with office in Bern for this task.

Unfortunately Robin Schwarzenbach is focusing much on the Wehrmacht past of Count Kessler and thus missing a most important statement of historical dimension related to art-exhibitions by France and Germany during World War I in Switzerland.
Théodore Duret (Saintes 20.01.1838 – 16.01.1927 Paris) writes in his foreword of the exhibition catalog Ausstellung Französischer Malerei, 29.10. – 26. 11.1916, Museum / Kunstverein Winterthur:
"Que cette exposition en pays neutre, sur le sol hospitalier de la Suisse, soit la bienvenue! Puisse-t-elle aider à rapprocher un instant, sur le terrain de l’art, des hommes ennemis sur un autre terrain et à leur faire quelque peu oublier les horreurs du temps présent. / Paris, Octobre 1916".
["Would this exhibition hopefully be welcomed in a neutral country on the hospitable grounds of Switzerland. Would it contribute, at least for a moment, in the area of art to get people together again, who fight against each other in other areas, and would it make forget a little the fright of this period of time."]
One year later Emil Waldmann (Bremen 1880 – 1945 Würzburg, director of Kunsthalle Bremen from 1914 onwards) is quoting literally Théodore Duret in his introduction for the exhibition catalog Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert, 19.08. – 23.09.1917, Kunsthaus Zürich:
"Möge diese Ausstellung in neutralen Landen auf dem gastlichen Boden der Schweiz willkommen geheissen werden. Möge sie dazu mithelfen, für einen Augenblick wenigstens, auf dem Gebiet der Kunst Menschen einander wieder näher zu bringen, die sich auf anderen Gebieten jetzt bekämpfen, und möchte sie die Schrecken der gegenwärtigen Zeitläufte ein wenig vergessen machen." See at top this text in the original catalog.
The Kunsthaus Zürich did show two weeks later Französische Kunst des XIX. und XX. Jahrhunderts, 05.10. – 14.11.1917; with 25 artists in the section Meister des XIX. Jahrhunderts, and 69 artists in the section Mitglieder des Salon d’Automne, Paris.

The Artists

Ausstellung Französischer Malerei (1916) and Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert (1917) is documenting the artists shown in art-exhibitions at galleries, museums, non-profit and collector’s venues, including curators, from 1880 up to the present, worldwide. Read more on our focus on
The 48 artists in the exhibition of French Painting at the Kunstmuseum Winterthur in 1916 are documented here Ausstellung Französischer Malerei.
Among the shown artists were Pierre Bonnard (1867 – 1947), Paul Cézanne (1839 – 1906), Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917), Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903), Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890), Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954), Claude Monet (1840 – 1926), Auguste Renoir (1841 – 1919), and Auguste Rodin (1840 – 1917).
The 36 artists in the exhibition of German Painting at Kunsthaus Zürich in 1917 are documented here Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert.
Harry Graf von Kessler was well connected and knew about the recent and upcoming currents in the arts. The selection of artists in 1917 in Zürich includes for the 19th century among others Adrian Ludwig Richter (1803 – 1884) and Carl Spitzweg (1808 – 1885), and for the 20th century among others Franz Marc (1880 – 1916), Erich Heckel (1883 – 1970), Max Beckmann (1884 – 1950), Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884 – 1976), Oscar Kokoschka (1886 – 1980), August Macke (1887 – 1914).

Missing Wassily Kandinsky?

Which artists to include in the 1917 German Painting exhibition at Kunsthaus Zürich must have been a most difficult task for Harry Graf von Kessler who certainly knew about the important new currents in particular in German art. How to show traditional and futurist artists together in a period of profound diversity?
In 1917 Russian history is marked by the February Revolution and the October Revolution with groundbreaking influence to the art scene. Kandinsky took part in the Knave of Diamonds / Jack of Diamonds / Valet de Carreau exhibitions in 1910 and 1912, one of the most significant exhibition societies of the early Russian avant-garde. Already in On December 3, 1913 Kazimir Malevich (1878 – 1935) did use the first time the Black Square for a theater decoration in St. Petersburg, the Cubo-Futurist opera, ‘Victory Over the Sun’, his first Suprematist statement. He was showing it the first time in the exhibition 0,10 – The Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings at Art Bureau – Nadezhda Dobychina in Saint Petersburg.
In the 1917 exhibition Harry Graf von Kessler did show Kandinsky’s (1866 – 1944) teacher, Franz von Stuck (1863 – 1928) and his companion Franz Marc with whom Kandinsky organized the first exhibition of the Blaue Reiter at Galerie Thannhauser, Munich, December 18, 1911, including August Macke (1887 – 1914), as well part of the first Blaue Reiter exhibition.
Before WWI broke out Kandinsky was exhibiting already internationally, including the 1913 Armory Show in New York, International Exhibition of Modern Art.
On April 1, 1914 Germany declared war to Russia. Kandinsky fled with Gabriele Münter from Munich to Switzerland and in November 1914 to Russia.
A first, most far-reaching statement for the new currents in art was the influential Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 (read our blog post  Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists) and 14 years later Alfred H. Barr‘s eminent retrospective exhibition at the MoMA, New York, Cubism and Abstract Art, Mar 3 – Apr 10, 1936, followed one year later by Entartete Kunst, Jul – Nov 1937, Münchner Hofgarten Arkaden, banning un-German and degenerated artists.
More influential exhibitions in our blog post  Influential Contemporary Art Exhibitions in the 20th and 21st Century.

Art is no weapon at all, has no fire range to kill people

In contrary, art is a peace-maker and reunites people, as the French and the German statements for the catalog of Ausstellung Französischer Malerei, 29.10.-26. 11.1916, Museum / Kunstverein Winterthur and of Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert, 19.08. 1917 – 23.09.1917, Kunsthaus Zürich demonstrate.

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Share this on – Online Reference and Index for artists, exhibition venues, and curators built on exhibition information of many decades

Analytics / Artists / Collector / Curators / Gallery / Museum / Non-Profit Place / Reference source / Research
Exhibition information as reference – Online Reference and Index for artists, exhibition venues, and curators built on exhibition information of many decades

To be part of the top 100 artists or exhibition venues is nice because everybody knows them.
But what about all others: Not only of the past few years, as well as for the past 120 years?
How to find them, and additional information on them?

Exhibition Information: Reference and Index

  Exhibitions and their published details are very much like a footprint a secure source.
Documenting this information from 1890 up to the present for artists, exhibition venues and curators alike, and making it searchable online with helps
A  To allocate and verify an artist and the artist’s identity across continents and decades, including alias names.
B  To find additional information on the artwork.
C  By digitizing the artists of an exhibition catalog provides for library and archive holdings worldwide the missing artist keyword index in their catalogs.
D  To find related content inside exhibition catalogs for details and valuable reviews on the artist’s work and profile in comparison to other artists, and the exhibition’s focus.
E  To find related information through the exhibition history, like e.g. all participants of a group exhibition.
F  To find information on the exhibition venue’s exhibition history and profile.
G  Authority information / related knowledge sources: is adding whenever possible to the profile of an artist, an exhibition venue, and a curator a link to their Wikipedia page and a link to their WorldCat-identity (based on VIAF or LCCN), or VIAF identity (Virtual International Authority File) page.

  To search an artist on and to find the artist’s documented exhibitions is a secure reference and starting point for research on artists, on curators, and on exhibition venues alike through the cross-linked information on
  In addition the documented exhibition information on offers much more than only finding an artist. The overview on group exhibitions and the participating artists, their exhibition history as well as the exhibition history of the gallery, museum or non-profit venue provides additional insight and helps to explore, analyze, discover, and develop.
  The success of an artist as well as of an exhibition venue is built on many years of hard work. You should revalue this effort by documenting it professionally online. Art professionals, academics, the press, curators, artists, galleries, museums, collectors and art lovers research on because it saves time through its unique structure.

Index for exhibition catalogs

  Looking up an exhibition catalog in a library or a bookshop will only work through the title and may be through the curator’s or the text author’s name. You will never find the complete list of all artists participating in a group exhibition, although it is important information for you and your research.
  Exhibitions documented with and like this searchable for the exhibition venue name, exhibition title and subtitle, the artists and curators are an important additional dimension to the existing artist CV or exhibition venue’s exhibition archive on their website. In most cases they only provide limited scope of information and time span.

‘All Exhibitions Update’

Contact us to review together with us your exhibition history and available sources. Take advantage on our flat rate of 580 € / 665 USD (net) for an ‘All Exhibitions Update’ on your page, for your complete timeline, from the opening up to the present.
  All our services can be found on our services page
Start researching with our main search on homepage
… more than 169,590 artists and 7.140 curators in 617.50ß shows (1890 – tomorrow) in 12.048 venues in 1.467 cities in 163 countries.

Art Exhibition Documentation

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Dreier Bequest Artist Update – G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer

Artists / Exhibition History / Gallery / History / Museum / Research
G.M. - Gerd Meyer

Dreier Bequest Artist Update – G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer

G M - Gerd MeyerGerd Meyer, signing with G M
(Oldenburg 1894 – 1987 Delmenhorst)
Also known as: Georg Bernhard Meyer; Gerd Meyer-Helldiek; Gert Meier; Gert Meyer

  The catalog raisonné of the Dreier Bequest at Yale University mentions an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston [YSA 51], 06.09.–02.10.1949, showing among the 50 artists as well the work of G.M. (Georg Meyer?). See exhibitions list below.
  The text about the artist G.M. (Georg Meyer?) in the catalog raisonné states that Katherine Sophie Dreier bought seven watercolors of this artist in Bremen in 1930 from the ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’. It is a correction of her notice in the 1950 catalogue, where Galerie Linne, Bremen, is mentioned as source.
  The artist G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer, born in Oldenburg on November 28, 1894. He became citizen of Bremen June 11, 1920. He died in Delmenhorst August 29, 1987. [Jürgen Weichardt: Biographie von Georg Bernhard (Gerd) Meyer; in: Biographisches Handbuch zur Geschichte des Landes Oldenburg; Ed. Hans Friedl, et al; Oldenburg 1992, ISBN 3-89442-135-5, page 456-457]

Gerd Meyer in ‘Thieme/Becker & Hans Vollmer’

  Following the kind notice of Kevin Fickert (Library Kunsthalle Bremen, contact through Bettina Brach, Weserburg | Museum für moderne Kunst, Bremen) the artist G. M., active in Bremen, is listed in ‘Thieme/Becker-Hans Vollmer Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Jahrhunderts’, Leipzig 1956, vol. 3, p. 382 (Verlag E.A. Seemann, Leipzig, 1999) as Gerd Meyer:
Meyer, Gerd, dtsch. Maler, *28.11.1894 Oldenburg i.O., ansässig in Bremen.
Stud. Bei R. tom Diek [Richard tom Dieck] in Oldenburg. Hauptsächl. Stilleben u. Landschaften. Begann als Impressionist, später abstrakt. Im Folkwang-Mus. Essen: Vorfrühling in Achterdiek. Koll.Ausst. 1924 in der Kestner-Ges. Hannover. Lit.: Dreßler [Willy Oskar Dressler]. – D. Bild (Karlsr.), 4 (1934) 318ff., m. Abb. – D. Cicerone, 16, (1924) 469.”

  For the Kestner-Gesellschaft group exhibition in March 1924 see below the exhibition history details of Gerd Meyer.

About Galerie Linne / Linne, Ziegert & Co., Bremen

  According to the catalog raisonné (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455) Katherine Dreier says she bought the seven watercolors in 1930 from a young man with the name Linne, who had opened a small gallery for watercolors, sketches, and graphic art.
  Only the Bremen 1924 registry knows a ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’, Kunst- und Buchhandlung, owned by Ferdinand Adolph Linne and Otto Erich Ziegert & Co. (no details on ‘Co.’ partners), Kohlhökerstraße 14, Bremen. The gallery closes for good September 30, 1924.
  Ferdinand Adolph Linne (Bremen *26.04.1876; until December 1925 Adolf, thereafter Adolph) is part of the Bremen citizen registry in 1922/23–1927, 1929, and 1930 as artist painter (Kunstmaler) at changing addresses. He is the son of Wilhelmine Linne, born Wagener and the merchant Hermann Heinrich Linne. The registry knows Linne always as Linne, not as Linné. ‘Linzie’, mentioned in the catalog raisonné (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455), was the telegraph address used bei ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’.
  Adolf Linne participated with 83 other artists in June 1912 in the exhibition This exhibition on Ausstellung zu Ehren von Geh. Hofrat Prof. Eugen Bracht, at Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden, at This exhibition on Bremische Kunstausstellung, at Kunsthalle Bremen, 30.11.1912–January 1913, together with 149 other artists, and from 01.02.–31.03.1914 This exhibition on Internationale Ausstellung in der Kunsthalle Bremen 1914 with 196 other artists. He was showing 2 oil paintings (‘Abendsonne, Rügen’; ‘Stilleben’) and three color drawings (‘Blick auf Vanves’; ‘Der Tod des Caspar Hauser’; ‘Caspar Hauser’).
  Otto Erich Ziegert was born 01.07.1900 at Zerpenschleuse, borough of Niederbarnim (Brandenburg), † 28.12.1978 Düsseldorf. He is the son of Maximilian Ziegert and Ilse von Grund.
  His father Maximilian Ziegert (*Eilenburg 1852–1930) opened in 1899 the ‘Kunstantiquariat Max Ziegert’, Hochstraße 3, Frankfurt am Main (first at Bethmannstraße 56), vis à vis of the Europe wide important antiquarian Joseph Baer & Co. He learned the basics of the trade as employee of the renowned Joseph A. Stargardt, Berlin, thereafter of Ludwig Rosenthal in Munich, and knew many of his colleagues across Europe [Max Ziegert: Schattenrisse deutscher Antiquare – persönliche Erinnerungen aus den Jahren 1870–1915; Leipzig 1916).
  Erich Ziegert was after the two years 1923–1924 in Bremen operating a gallery in Berlin, Wittenbergplatz 3a, from 1928–1930. He married in Frankfurt am Main on 15.06.1926 Wanda Helene Pauline von Debschitz (Munich 01.11.1899 – 12.07.1986 Lausanne), daughter of Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski (1870–1935) and the artist Wilhelm von Debschitz (1871– 1948), marriage 1898, divorced July 1924. He is registered as Bremen inhabitant only later, relocating from Potsdam/Berlin, between 20.05.1946 and 29.1.1949, thereafter moving to Bad Godesberg.
  Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski was a well-known portrait photographer of her time, opening her own studio in Berlin in 1921.
  Wilhelm von Debschitz was 1900 co-founder of the avant-garde art academy Debschitz-Schule in Munich, from 1914–1921 director of the ‘Kunstgewerbeschule- und Handwerkerschule Hannover’, 1916 co-founder of the ‘Kestner-Gesellschaft’.
  Wanda Helene Pauline’s sister Irene was married to Alexander (aka Xanti) Schawinsky, a Swiss painter, photographer and theater stage designer with ties to the Bauhaus and Walter Gropius.

  Galerie Linne / Linne, Ziegert & Co. ‘Kunst- und Buchhandlung’
  The business may have started in early 1923 following the correspondence of Kurt Schwitters with Hannah Höch on his and her artwork at Linne, Ziegert & Co. (Kurt Schwitters archive Berlinische Galerie, correspondence with Hannah Höch 24.04. and 01.05.1923). Another source for their activities is the offer dating 21.04.1924 and sent by Linne, Ziegert & Co. to the poet Stefan George [Stefan George Archiv, Württembergischen Landesbibliothek] on two busts (1910 and 1923) of Alfred Schuler by Clara Rilke-Westhoff, living then east of Bremen in Fischerhude and seen today as a pioneer female sculptor.
  Katherine Dreier refers to Linne and the gallery in conjunction with the seven G.M. watercolors she bought there most presumably in summer 1924 during her stay in Europe. The purchase date 1930 first mentioned in the catalog raisonné of 1950 may be the result of incomplete or misread records. The later notice (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455) of Katherine Dreier that she bought the watercolors from ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’, Bremen, are difficult to verify as no ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’ appears in the Bremen registry between 1923–1932.
  Exhibitions by ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’ are known for 1923 and 1924. See below.

Exhibitions at Galerie Linne, Ziegert & Co. knows

1923 AprilKurt Schwitters, Hannah Höch.
1923 April–MayFritz Stuckenberg
1923 October–November'G"-Ausstellung - 'G' stands for 'Material zur elementaren Gestaltung', later 'Zeitschrift für Elementare Gestaltung', editors Werner Graeff, El Lissitzky, Friedrich Kiesler, Hans Richter, Mies van der Rohe
1923/1924Dora Bromberger

Exhibitions of Gerd Meyer knows

Last update February 22, 2017
1922, MarchThis exhibition on 2. Frühjahrsausstellung der 'Barke', Augusteum, Oldenburg.
Georg Emil Baumann, C. Behling, K.W. Göring, Gertrud Göring-Erichsen, Willy Knoop, Gerd Meyer [G M], Alexander Minke, Jan Oeltjen, Karl Sommerfeld, Georg von der Vring, Therese von der Vring
[Source: Jörg Michael Henneberg, Künstlergruppe 'Barke'; in: Therese von der Vring 1894-1927, Biographie; Künstlerhaus Jan Oeltjen, Oldenburg, 1996]
1924, MarchThis exhibition on 63 | Irma Stern - Gerd Meyer - Hans Düne - Architektur von Adolf Falke, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
[in: 'Zur 100. Ausstellung der Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover'; Hannover 1929. page 6 / catalog of the exhibition 100 | 'Edvard Munch', which includes details of the past 100 exhibitions]
08.12. – 11.12.1926

Auction Catalog, December 11, 1926, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
The Kestner-Gesellschaft did stage a preview exhibition for an auction from December 8 – 11, 1926 in which Gerd Meyer took part.
Lot #130: Meier, Gert, Bremen, Komposition Braune Melodie, Aquarell 12x24 cm
This exhibition on 81a | Versteigerung einer Privatsammlung moderner Aquarelle und Graphik, Sonnabend, den 11. Dezember 1926, Hannover, [organized by Karl von der Porten jun.], Ort: Kestner-Gesellschaft e.V., Hannover, Königstraße 8.

It is an auction of a prestigious private collection (no details known about the owner) of watercolors and graphic art by 82 well known artists of the beginning 20th century, among them Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Max Beckmann, Fernand Léger, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, László Móhóly-Nagy, Emil Nolde, Kurt Schwitters, Willi Baumeister, Lyonel Feininger.

The complete, digitized catalog (11 pages) on
1942This exhibition on Kunstausstellung des Gaues Weser-Ems : Gemälde, Graphik, Plastik
Organized by the Oldenburger Kunstverein and 'Künstlerbund Bremen', together with the 'Niederländisch-Deutsche Kulturgemeinschaft'.
06.09. – 02.10.1949This exhibition on The Société Anonyme Collection, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston; (Source: Dreier Bequest, 1984, YSA 51, p.781)
10.10. – 06.11.1949This exhibition on Modern Art From the Collection of the Société Anonyme, Museum of Modern Art: 1920, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA
(Source: Dreier Bequest, 1984, YSA 54, p.781)
07.04.–12.05.1978This exhibition on Künstler in Delmenhorst - Werke aus dem Kunstbesitz der Stadt Delmenhorst anläßlich des Jubiläums "75 Jahre Kreisfreiheit", Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
1981Gerd Meyer - Bilder der 20er Jahre, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg [from CV in catalog 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land, p. 46} No further details
22.02. – 22.03.1987This exhibition on 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land - 1786–1986
Oldenburger Kunsrverein and Landesmuseum Oldenburg
29.03. –26.04.1987This exhibition on 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land - 1786–1986
Kunsthalle Wilhelmshaven
1990, SeptemberGerd Meyer-Hellensiek, Kunsthandlung Klaus von Seggern, Oldenburg
[Review by Jörg Michael Henneberg; in: Der Oldenburgische Hauskalender oder Hausfreund 1992, page 15-21.]
06.06. – 21.07.1999This exhibition on Graphische Sammlung Klassische Moderne - 25 Jahre Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst
curator Barbara Alms, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
11.01. – 03.02.2002This exhibition on Graphische Sammlung II - Akrobaten, Harlekine und Amazonen,
curator Barbara Alms, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
06.09. – 20.12.2009This exhibition on 'entartet' - beschlagnahmt - Bremer Künstler im Nationalsozialismus
curator Birgit Neumann-Dietzsch, Städtische Galerie Bremen

Société Anonyme Retrospective 2006

  This exhibition on The Société Anonyme – Modernism for America
The Yale University Art Museum organized an important retrospective for the legendary Société Anonyme starting at the Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, April 23 – August 20, 2006, organized by Jennifer Gross, then touring to The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC, Dallas Museum of Art (TX), Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville (TN), and Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven (CT), December 12, 2012 – July 14, 2013.
  In 1941 Katherine Dreier and Marcel Duchamp donated a portion of their collection to Yale University. Among others works of art Katherine Dreier had bought at the legendary and influential Blog post Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922, e.g. the Konstantin Medunetsky [Mechmetzki] scultpure ‘Construction’ (1919).
  At this time, Dreier and Duchamp actively sought additional gifts to round out their Collection. Their efforts prompted donations from numerous artists including Jean Arp, John Graham, Jean Crotti, and one of the organization’s cofounders, Man Ray. When the group formally dissolved in 1950, the collection assembled by the Société Anonyme constituted one of the foremost assemblages of modern art in America, paralleled only by The Museum of Modern Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, in New York.

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Easy access to additional resources with our Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link

Artists / Collector / Curators / Gallery / Museum / News and Notes / Research
Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on

Easy access to additional resources with our Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link as a reference for artists, exhibition venues, curators and their exhibitions

The artist-info exhibition-history page for artists, for galleries, museums, non-profit and collector’s venues is a unique possibility to document exhibition information.
Complete information on group-exhibitions and cross-linking the exhibition details revalues the important function exhibitions always had and will have, as the most influential place to present artwork to the public.
The insight is providing, from 1900 up to the present, across the many individual exhibitions of artists, organized by many different exhibition venues, by different curators, offers a new way to explore and research the profile of artists, exhibition venues, and curators.
That’s an important advantage to printed biographies.

Our exhibition-history information has become an important source to identify and reference an artist’s as well as an exhibition venue’s name and through this their profile, with sometimes many hundred solo- and group-exhibitions in many countries and cities.
The importance of such a reference shows as an example our research on Blog Post Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 / The 1st Russian Show Berlin 1922: In the catalog 9 artist names have two different spellings, we added to the exhibition’s 162 artist names 301 alias names which we found in the more than 3.350 exhibitions knows for the 162 artists. Searching any of these 301 alias names with artist-info Main-Search will display the artist-info reference name for the looked up artist.

Access to more resources beyond the artist-info exhibition-history

To better inform and to facilitate the access to more information beyond the artist-info exhibition-history page artist-info is adding a link to Wikipedia and to WorldCat-Identity as part of the artist, exhibition venue, and curator page's header.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on

Wikipedia  Wikipedia link

The Wikipedia page of an artist, an exhibition venue, a curator can provide a first overview and encourage further research.
Your notice on missing Wikipedia page information is always welcome.

Wikipedia  WorldCat-Identity link

As the information accessible through the Internet is growing more and more authority control to identify an artist, an exhibition venue, or a curator across the many different sources has become an important additional reference.
Among the many national and international authority control databases we have chosen WorldCat-Identity as reference for artists, exhibition venues and curators on as it offers a wide range of information on additional resources for research in particular in libraries and archives worldwide.
The link to the WorldCat-Identity is part of the artist's, exhibition venue's, or curator's page header.
We are adding constantly the related WorldCat-Identity page link but your email on a missing link is always welcome.
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This exhibition on  Individual Exhibition Page for an exhibition

All exhibitions of an exhibition venue in with an exhibition title can be displayed on an individual page. Clicking this icon This exhibition on opens a new browser window with this exhibitions artist-info sub-URL.
To update exhibitions without exhibition title, please do contact us or read our services page.

Summary Section

Each exhibition-history page of an artist, exhibition venue, or curator in artist-info has a summary section. It analysis the sometime many 100 exhibitions and provides an important overview.
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Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

Analytics / Exhibition History / History / Influential Exhibitions / Research
Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

The cover page of the catalog, deisgn by El Lissitzky  –  See the table below with all artists

Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

   Like in the Mythologies quotidiennes exhibition catalog (Paris, 1964) – Blog Post see our blog post – the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 exhibition catalog states only the artist’s last name.
   Our survey seeks the answer to this question in identifying and allocating the artists through their many exhibitions from 1900 up to the present on and to provide like this new insight and overview to prove the importance of this exhibition not only for the well-known artists. As a result of our research we could identify other artists who participated but are not listed in the catalog. See note [1] and [2] below.
   The table at the bottom of this post shows our allocation of the artists’ last name in the catalog of 1922 to their cross-linked exhibition history on

An Outstanding Exhibition – Purpose and Selection

   The main purpose of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 was fundraising to support the starving Russian people, and David Shterenberg, a painter himself and showing his work as well in Berlin, was commissioned at the beginning of 1922 by the Bolshevik Russian State (RSFSR) to organize the exhibition in Berlin, due to the positive climate for Russian intellectuals and artists. The Galerie Der Sturm (1910-1932) directed by Herwarth Walden was certainly one of the most active places to support the new avant-garde movement. Looking back Berlin in mid October 1922 was the right place in Western Europe and in history for this exhibition. See Facts and Figures below.
   David Shterenberg made a courageous selection of well known as well as of younger, then not yet internationally known artists, and so called Russian avant-garde artists supporting new movements like non-objective art. The wide scope of the artist’s work he aimed for did reunite so controversial painters like Chagall and Malevich, theater stage and costume sketches and architecture sketches. See all sections under Facts and Figures below. It attracted many more visitors than expected and a wide national and international response by critics and the press for many decades. However, the important impulse and enthusiasm which arose from this influential exhibition of non-objective art and the plans to show it in other European towns and even the USA was made impossible by the political reality.
   Allocating the artists’ last name in the Berlin catalog of 1922 was an exciting challenge. For the 160 Russian artists of the Berlin exhibition the database knows October 2017 more than 4.000 solo- and group exhibitions, from 1912 (4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, Köln) up to the present, at many exhibition venues in Europe, North America, and around the world. The number will grow continuously with our ongoing documentation of exhibitions from 1890 up to the present. 

   Chagall, who was born in 1887 in Liozna near Vitebsk (Belarus), returned in 1914 when World War I broke out from Paris to his hometown. Only a few month after the after the October Revolution on November 7, 1917, Chagall founded the Vitebsk People’s Art College (Narodnoy Khudozhestvennoye Uchilische) in 1918 with the permission of David Shterenberg, then the head of the art section of the Division of the People’s Enlightenment. Chagall’s public art activities in Vitebsk lead to his project of founding a new type of art school with community studios.
   Both, Marc Chagall and from autumn 1919 onwards Kasimir Malevich, were teachers at the Vitebsk Academy. After Malevich had arrived many of Chagall’s students changed to the class of Malevich. After he had lost all his students to Malevich in May 1920 Chagall officially resigned in June and went to Moscow.
   Another example for Shterenberg’s wide scope of selection is the Latvian artist Karlis Joganson (1892-1929). The research published since the 1990s revealed his importance.
   Architecture sketches were shown in Berlin as well, e.g. by Wladimir Krinskij, Gerogii Mapu, Aleksander Rodchenko, and Alexandr Shevchenko. They were members of ZhivSkulptArkh (Painting, Sculpture and Architecture), until the end of 1919 known as SinSkulptArkh (Synthesis of Sculpture and Architecture).
The Berlin catalog lists as well theater stage and costume sketches by some artists.

Russian Avant-Garde Exhibitions

   Another important perspective for our research was to show, how the artists of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were participating in other exhibitions from before World War I ( This exhibition on 4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, 1922 Köln) up to the present. They can easily be explored with a mouse click thanks to the structure of artist-info.
Some examples among many other exhibitions on the Russian avant-garde artist-info documented are
2016 This exhibition on A Revolutionary Impulse – The Rise of the Russian Avant-Garde, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2011  This exhibition on Chagall et l’avant-garde russe, Musée de Grenoble
2003 This exhibition on Traumfabrik Kommunismus – Die visuelle Kultur der Stalinzeit, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt am Main
2001 This exhibition on mit voller Kraft. – Russische Avantgarde 1910-1934, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg
2000 This exhibition on Futurismus in Russland – und David Burliuk, ‘Vater des Russischen Futurismus’, Von der Heydt-Kunsthalle, Wuppertal
1993 This exhibition on Von Malewitsch bis Kabakov – Russische Avantgarde im 20. Jahrhundert. Die Sammlung Ludwig, Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle, Köln
1992 This exhibition on The Great Utopia – The Russian and Soviet Avant-Garde, 1915-1932, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
1989 This exhibition on 100 Years of Russian Art, 1889-1989 – from Private Collections in the USSR, Barbican Art Gallery, London
1983 This exhibition on The 1st Russian Show – A commemoration of the Van Diemen Exhibition, Berlin 1922, Annely Juda Fine Art, London; Catalog with texts by Andrei B. Nakov, Krisztina Passuth, Peter Nisbet, Christina Lodder;
Andrei Nakov, ‘This Last exhibition which was First‘, Note [3] on page 8 of this Annely Juda exhibition catalog: “These [Kandinsky’s] works, submitted at the last moment, are not mentioned in the catalog [This exhibition on Esposizione libera futurista internazionale, Galleria Futurista – Giuseppe Sprovieri, Roma]. (This information was given to me by G. Sprovieri whom I would like to thank for his generous help and support in my research on ths subject).”
1981 This exhibition on Art of the Avant-Garde in Russia – Selections from the George Costakis Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
1978 This exhibition on Revolution – Russian Avant-Garde, 1912-1930, Museum of Modern Art, New York
1977 This exhibition on Tendenzen der Zwanziger Jahre – 15. Europäische Kunstausstellung, Neue National Galerie, Berlin
1973 This exhibition on Tatlin’s Dream – Russian Suprematist and Constructivist Art 1910-1923, Fischer Fine Art, London
1972 This exhibition on Kunst in der Revolution – Architektur, Produktgestaltung, Malerei, Plastik, Agitation, Theater, Film in der Sowjetunion 1917-1932, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart
1968 This exhibition on Aspects de l’Avant Garde Russe 1905-1925, Galerie Jean Chauvelin, Paris
1937 This exhibition on Konstruktivisten, Kunsthalle Basel
1936 This exhibition on Cubism and Abstract Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York
This exhibition on Many exhibitions at Galerie Gmurzinska
1922 This exhibition on Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922, Galerie van Diemen & Co, Berlni

1924 This exhibition on 14. Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte della Città di Venezia, 44 artists of the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were showing at the Biennale di Venezia in 1924, of altogether 96 Russian artists.
1920 This exhibition on 12. Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte della Città di Venezia, 2 artists of the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were showing at the Biennale di Venezia in 1920, of altogether 19 Russian artists.

Facts and Figures

   The Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 took place at the Galerie van Diemen & Co, GmbH, Berlin, Unter den Linden 21, from October 15 until December 1922.
The Art Section of the Division of People’s Enlightenment asked David Shterenberg to organize this sales exhibition. The catalog states as its purpose: The proceeds will go to the starving people of Russia (‘Der Reinertrag ist für die Hungernden Russlands bestimmt!’).
This exhibition on All artists of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 on

The catalog lists the artists by media
   The cover page of the catalog was designed by El Lissitzky.
   The introductions by Davide Sterenberg, Edwin Redslob, Arthur Holitscher, and an unkown author of ‘Zur Einführung’ is followed by the list of artists by media
Paintings (84 artists)
Watercolors, Drawings, Wood- and Lino-Cut, Copper Engraving, Posters, Albums, Architecture- and Theater Sketches (111 artists)
Sculpture (12 artists).
More media without artists are listed in a fourth segment: Porcelaine, Glass, Decorative Works, Semiprecious Stones.
   The third part of the catalog shows 48 black and white illustrations of artwork by 38 artists, plus 6 illustrations of St. Petersburg porcelain.
   For the student’s works (Schülerarbeiten), the works from the Vitebsk Academy students (Schule von Witebsk), and the children’s water colors (Kinderaquarelle) no names are listed.
   Teachers at the Vitebsk Academy (Belarus) in January 1919 were Chagall, Kseniya Boguslavskaya, Ivan Puni (a.k.a. Jean Pougny), Alexander Romm, Vera Yermolayeva, Nikolai Radlov, El Lissitzky, Ivan Tilberg, from November 1919 onwards Malevich, and before 1919 Mstislav Dobujinski.

Allocating the Catalog’s Artist Names
Notes on Artists Inside/Outside the 1922 Catalog

   For the 160 Russian artists of the 1922 Berlin exhibition knows Ocotber 2017 more than 4.000 solo- and group exhibitions, from 1912 (This exhibition on 4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, Köln) up to the present. It is updated continually.

   This research project is a good example how documenting exhibitions with, even from many decades ago, helps to explore and revalue the profile of artists, exhibition venues, and curators through their exhibition information.

   Table-Note [1]: Lasar Markovič Chidekel [Khidekel] (1904 - 1986) is not listed in the catalog. He participated at the 1922 Berlin exhibition as part of UNOVIS. Biography of Lasar Chidekel in the catalog of: This exhibition on Malewitsch und sein Einfluss, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz, 16.05.-07.09. 2008.
Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922-Page 17
Catalog page 17
   Table-Note [2]: Michail Vasilyevich Matyushin (1861 - 1934), the eminent Russian avant-garde artist, is not listed in the 1922 Berlin catalog. The reason to include him in our table is because the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 is part of his exhibitions list on page 103 of the exhibition catalog of This exhibition on Matjuschin und die Leningrader Avantgarde (Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe, 27.04.-09.06. 1991, exhibition of the 'Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe'; catalog by Oktogon Verlag, Stuttgart-München, ISBN 3-927789-09-7). It was organised by Heinrich Klotz, Alla Powelichina, and Jewgenija Petrowa.
The Matjuschin und die Leningrader Avantgarde exhibition in 1991 in Karlsruhe was based on Alla Powelichina's exhibition Matjuschin und seine Schüler in 1990 in the Sankt Petersburg History Museum.

I would like to thank Christina Lodder, University of Kent, for her help regarding the transliteration of some artist names which I couldn't identify through exhibitions or other sources.
November 25, 2017
- 8 artist names with different spelling: Some artists are part of more than one section in the catalog (Painting, Watercolors / Prints, Sculpture, Illustrations). In some cases the spelling of their name differs. Example: MECHMETZKI / MEDUNETZKI
- Alias: For many Russian artist names different spellings are in use. Most of these aliases are listed below. Main Search knows these alias names, too.
1922 CatalogOn CatalogOn
ALTMANN, N.Altman, Nathan Isayevich (1889 - 1970)(44)LISSITZKY / LISSITZKILissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)
Alias: Lissitzki
ANIENKOWAnnenkov, Jurii Pawlowitsch (1889 - 1974)
Aliases: Annenkoff, Annenkow
(37)MALEWITSCHMalevich, Kazimir Severinovich (1879 - 1935)
Aliases: Malewitsch, Malevitch, Malevič, Malewicz
ARCHIPENKOArchipenko, Alexander Porfirjowitsch (1887 - 1964)(173)Not in the catalogMalyavin, Filip Andreevic (1869 - 1940)
Aliases: Maliavine, Maljawin, Malavin, Maljavin
ARCHIPOWArchipov, Abram (1862 - 1930)
Aliases: Arkhipov, Archipow
(9)MALKINMalkin, Georges Alexandre (1898 - 1970)
Alias: Malkine
ARNSCHTAM, A.Arnshtam, Alexander Martynovych (1880 - 1969)
Alias: Arnstam
(1)MALUTINMaljutin, Sergej Vasil'evic (1895 - 1937)
Aliases: Malyutin, Maljutin, Malioutine
ARONSOHNAronson, Boris (1898 - 1980)
Alias: Aronsohn
No further details
BARANOW-ROSSINEBaranov-Rossiné, Vladimir Dawidowitsch (1888 - 1944)
Aliases: Baranoff-Rossine, Baranow-Rossine
(27)MANSUROWMansurov, Pawel Andrejewitsch (1896 - 1984)
Aliases: Mansuroff, Mansouroff, Mansourov, Mansurow
BELJAJEWBeljaev, Vasilij Pavlovic (1901 - 1942)
Aliases: Belyaev, Beljaew
(1)MAPUMapu, Georgii
No further details
Benois, Alexandre Nikolayevich (1870 - 1960)
Alias: Benua
(10)MASCHKOWMashkov, Ilya Ivanovich (1881 - 1944)
Aliases: Maschkoff, Maschkow, Machkov, Maskov
BOGUSLAWSKAJABoguslawskaja, Xenia Leonidowna (1892 - 1972)
Aliases: Boguslavskaja, Bogouslavskaïa
(11)Not in the catalogMatyushin, Michail Vasilyevich (1861 - 1934) [2]
Aliases: Matjuschin, Matyushin, Matjusin, Matiushin, Matiouchine, Matjušin
BOLTSCHAKOW / BOTSCHKOWBolschakow, Konstantin Aristarchowitsch (1895 - 1938)
Aliases: Bolshakov, Boltschakow, Botschkow
(2)MATORINMatorin, Mikhail Vladimirovič (1901 - 1976)(2)
BRASBraz, Osip Emmanuilovich (1873 - 1936)
Alias: Bras
(1)MATWEJEWMatveev, Aleksandr Terentievich (1878 - 1960)
Aliases: Matwejew, Matveyev
BRUNIBruni, Lew Alexandrowitsch (1894 - 1948)(10)MAXIMOWMaximov, Nikolay Kristoforich (1892 - 1974)
Alias: Maximow
BUBNOWABubnova, Varvara Dmitrievna (1886 - 1983)
Alias: Bubnowa
(8)MECHMETZKI / MEDUNETZKIMedunetsky, Konstantin Konstantinovic (1899 - 1935)
Aliases: Mechmetzki, Meduneckij, Medunezki
BUCHOWETZKIBukowiezkij, Iewgenij (1866 - 1948)
Alias: Buchowetzki
No further details
Alias: Medwiedjew
BURLJUK / BURLJUNKBurliuk, David Davidovich (1882 - 1967)
Aliases: Burjuk, Burljuk, Burlyuk, Bourliouk
(49)MESENTZEWMezentsev, Sergei Aleksandrovich No further details
Alias: Mesentzew
CHAGALLChagall, Marc (1887 - 1985)
Aliases: Sagal, Sagalov
(399)MIKLASCHEWSKAJAMiklaschewskaja, Tamara (1894 - 1947)(2)
Not in the catalogChidekel [Khidekel], Lasar Markovič (1904 - 1986) [1]
Alias: Khidekel
(6)MILLIOTIMilioti, Nikolaj Dmitrievic (1874 - 1962)(3)
CHOCHRIAKOWKhokhryakov, Nikolay (1887 - 1928)
Aliases: Chochriakow, Khokhrianov
(1)MITURITSCHMiturich, Pjotr Vasil'evich (1887 - 1956)
Aliases: Mituritsch, Miturich, Mituric, Mitouritch
DENISSOWSKIDenisovski, Nikolai Fedorovich (1901 - 1981)
Aliases: Denissowskii, Denisovskij, Denisovsky
(6)MOLTSCHANOWMolchanov, Konstantin Mikhailovich (1906 - 1980)
Alias: Moltschanow
DJEGINZhegin, Lev Feodorovich (1892 - 1969)
Aliases: Djegin, Geghin, Shekhtel
(2)MORAWOWMoravof, Aleksander Viktorovitch (1878 - 1951)
Aliases: Moravov, Morawow
DOBUJINSKIDobuzinskij, Mstislav Valerianovic (1875 - 1957)
Aliases: Dobuschinski, Dobujinski, Doboujinski, Dobužinskis, Dobuzhinsky
(5)MORGUNOWMorgunov, Alexei Alexeyevich (1884 - 1935)
Aliases: Morgunow, Morgounow
DREWINDrevin, Aleksandr Davydovich (1889 - 1938)
Alias: Drewin
(18)NASARETZKAJANagaevskaya, Elena Varnavovna (1900 - 1989)(1)
EIGESEiges, Veniamin Romanovich (1888 - 1956)(1)NESTEREW / NESTEROWNesterov, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1862 - 1942)(7)
ENGELEngel, Otto Heinrich (1866 - 1949)(16)NIKRITINNikritin, Solomon Borissowitsch (1898 - 1965)(16)
ERMOLAJEWAErmolaeva, Vera Mikhailovna (1893 - 1938)
Aliases: Ermolajewa, Jermolajewa, Yermolayeva, Yermolaeva
(12)NOSKOWNoskov, Mikhail Vasil'evich (1892 - 1957)
Alias: Noskow
EXTERExter, Alexandra Alexandrovna (1882 - 1949)
Alias: Ekster
(102)OLENIKOlejnik, Janka (1887 - 1954)(1)
FALKFalk, Robert Rafailovic (1886 - 1958)(24)OSMERKINOsmerkin, Alexander Alexandrovich (1892 - 1953)(8)
FAVORSKAJAFavorskaja, Vera Vasilyevna (1896 - 1977)
(2)PAINPain, Yakov Semenovich (1898 - ?)(1)
FEDOROWFedorov, German Vasilyevich (1885 - 1976)
Alias: Fedorow
(3)PAWLOWPavlov, Semen Andreevi (1893 - 1941)(2)
FEDOROWSKIFedorovskij, Fedor Fedorovi (1883 - 1955)
Alias: Fedorowski, Fedorovsky
(3)PEREKATOWPerekatov, Alexander
Alias: Perekatow
FILONOWFilonov, Pawel Nikolajevitsch (1882 - 1941)
Alias: Filonow
(27)PERINPéri, László (1899 - 1967)(45)
GABOGabo, Naum [Naum Neemia Pevsner] (1890 - 1977)(128)PESTELLPestel, Wera Efimovna (1886 - 1952)
Alias: Pestell
No further details
Alias: Gambarow
(1)PETROWITSCHEWPetrovichev, Petr Ivanovich (1874 - 1947)
Alias: Petrowitschew
GAUSCHGaush, Alexandre Fedorovich (1873 - 1947)
Aliases: Gausch, Gauš, Gaúcho, Hausch, Hauš
(1)PEWSNERPevsner, Antoine (1884 - 1962)
Alias: Pewsner
GERASSIMOWGerasimov, Alexander Mikhaylovich (1881 - 1963)
Alias: Gerassimow
(5)POPOPWAPopova, Lyubow Sergeyevna (1889 - 1924)
Alias: Popowa
GRABARGrabar, Igor Emmanuilovich (1871 - 1960)(5)PRUSSAKOWPrusakow, Nikolaj Petrowitsch (1900 - 1952)
Alias: Prussakow
GRIGORJEW, N.Grigoriev, Nikolai Mikhalovich (1880 - 1943)
Alias: Grigorjew
(1)PUNI, J.Puni, Ivan Albertovich [Jean Pougny] (1892 - 1956)
Alias: Pugni
GRISCHTSCHENKOGrishchenko, Aleksei Vasilievich (1883 - 1977)
Aliases: Grischtschenko, Gritchenko, Grischenko
(4)RADIMOWRadimov, Pavel Aleksandrovich (1887 - 1967)
Alias: Radimow
IDELSONIdelson-Labusquere, Vera (1893 - 1977)(2)RODSCHENKORodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)
Aliases: Rodtschenko, Rodschenko, Rodtchenko, Rodčenko
IWANOWIvanov, Sergei Ivanovich (1885-1942)
Alias: Iwanow
(6)ROJDESTWENSKYRozhdestvensky, Vasily Vasilyevich (1884 - 1963)
Aliases: Roshdjestwjenskij, Rojdestwensky, Roshdestwenski, Roschdestwenski, Rozdestvenskij
JAKIMTSCHENKOYakimchenko, Alexander Georgiev (1878 - 1928)
Aliases: Jakimtschenko, Jakimtscenko
(2)ROMANOWITSCHRomanovich, Sergey Mikhalovich (1894 - 1968)
Alias: Romanowitsch
JAKULOWYakulov, Georgy Bogdanovich (1884 - 1928)
Aliases: Jakulow, Yakoulov, Yakouloff
(20)ROSANOWARozanova, Olga Vladimirovna (1886 - 1918)
Alias: Rosanova
JOGANSONJoganson, Karlis (1890 - 1929)
Aliases: Johanson, Ioganson, Johansons
(14)Not in the catalogRoyak, Efim Moiseevich (1906-1987)
Alias: Rayak
JOUKOWSKIZukowski, Stanislaw Yulianovich (1873 - 1944)
Aliases: Joukowski, Jukovski, Schukowski, Zukovskii, Zhukovsky
(3)SACHAROWSacharoff, Olga Nicolaevna (1889 - 1967)
Aliases: Sacharova, Sacharow
JUDINYudin, Lev Alexandrovich (1901 - 1941)
Alias: Judin
(4)SALITZāle, Kārlis [Karl Zalit] (1888 - 1942)
Aliases: Zalit, Salit
JUONYuon, Konstantin Fyodorovich (1875 - 1958)
Aliases: Iuon, Juon, Youon
(9)SAMOSCHKINZamoshkin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1899 - 1977)
Alias: Samoschkin
KAGANKagan, Anna Abelewna (1902 - 1974)
Alias: Kogan
(11)SARJANSaryan, Martiros Sergeevich (1880 - 1972)
Aliases: Sarian, Sarjan
KANDINSKIKandinsky, Wassily (1866 - 1944)
Aliases: Kandinski, Kandinskij
(531)SAWJALOWSawjalow [Zavialov], Iwan Fedorovich (1893 - 1937)
Aliases: Zavyalov, Zavialov
KAPLUNKaplun, Adrian Vladimirovich (1887 - 1974)
Alias: Kaploune
(1)SCHEMIAKINShemyakin, Mikhail F. (1875 - 1944)
Alias: Schemiakin
KAREWKarev, Alexei Eremeevich (1879 - 1942)
Aliases: Karew, Kareff
(2)SCHESTOPALOWAShestopalova, Elena Ivanovna (1895 - 1988)(1)
Not in the catalogKogan, Nina Josifowna (1889 - 1942)
Aliases: Kagan
(11)SCHWETSCHENKOShevchenko, Alexander Vasilyevich (1882 - 1948)
Aliases: Chevtchenko, Schevchenko, Schewtschenko, Sevcenko, Schwetschenko
KOLESNIKOWKolesnikov, Sergej Michaijlovic (1889 - 1952)
Aliases: Klosnikow, Kolesnikow
(1)SCHIROKOWChirokov [Scirokof], Michel de
Aliases: Schirokow, Scirokof, Schirokow
KLUNKliunkov [Kliun], Ivan Vasilievich (1873 - 1943)
Aliases: Kljun, Klyun, Kyun, Klioune, Klyoun, Klun, Kljunkow
(67)SCHIKOLNIKSkolnik, Iosif Solomonovic (1883 - 1926)
Alias: Schkolnik, Shkol'nik, Shkolnik, Školnik
Klutsis, Gustav Gustavovich (1895 - 1938)
Aliases: Klucis, Klutzis, Kluzis, Kloutsis
(78)SEIZEWASaizew, Nikolai (1885 - 1938)
Alias: Seizewa
KOLZOWKoltsov, Sergei Vasilievich (1892 - 1951)
Aliases: Kolzow, Kaltsov
(1)SEVERNYSeverin, Ivan Mitrofanovich (1881 - 1964)
Alias: Severny
KOMARDJENKOWKomardenkov, Vassily Petrovitsch (1897 - 1973)
Alias: Komardjenkow
(2)SINESUBOW / SINEZUBOWSinezubov, Nikolay Vladimirovich (1891 - 1956)
Aliases: Sinezouboff, Sinesubow, Sinezubow
Not in the catalogKomissarenko, Zenon Petrovich (1891-1978)(1)SOKOLOWSokolow, Michail Ksenofontovich (1885 - 1947)(4)
KONTSCHALOWSKIKonchalovsky, Pyotr Petrovich (1876 - 1956)
Aliases: Kontschalowski, Kontschalowskij, Kontchalovski, Kontchalovsky, Koncalovskij, Končalovskij
(26)STEINBERGShteinberg, Eduard Antonovich (1882 - 1935)
Aliases: Shteynberg, Steinberg, Steynberg
KOROLJEWKoroljow, Boris Danilowitsch (1884 - 1963)
Aliases: Korolev, Koroljew, Korolyov
(18)STENBERGShtenberg, Irina Valerianovna (1905 - 1985)
Aliases: Steinberg
KOROWINKorovin, Constantin Alexeiev (1861 - 1939)
Aliases: Korowin, Korovine
(6)STENBERG, G.Stenberg, Georgii Avgustovich (1900 - 1933)(10)
KOSINTZEWAKossinzewa, Ljubow Alexejwna (1898 - 1978)
Aliases: Kosintzewa, Kozintseva, Kozinceva
(1)STENBERG, W.Stenberg, Wladimir Awgustowitsch (1899 - 1982)(16)
KOSLINSKIKoslinskij, Wladimir Iwanowitsch (1891 - 1967)
Aliases: Koslinsky, Kozlinski
(8)STEPANOWAStepanova, Varvara Fjodorowna (1894 - 1958)
Alias: Stepanowa
KRASOWSKIKrassowski, Feliks (1895 - 1967)
Aliases: Krasowski, Krassovski
(1)STERENBERG, D.Schterenberg, David Petrowitsch (1881 - 1948)
Aliases: Schterenberg, Sterenberg, Sternberg, Chterenberg
KRAWTSCHENKOKravchenko, Aleksei Ilyich (1889 - 1940)
Aliases: Kravtchenko, Krawtschenko
(4)STREGEMINSKYStrzemiński, Władysław Maximilianowitsch (1893 - 1952)
Aliases: Stregeminsky, Strsheminski
KREITORKraïtor, Ivan Kondratievich (1880 - 1957)
Aliases: Kreitor, Kraitor
(1)SWESCHNIKOWASveshnikov, Ivan Ivanovich (1896 - 1963)
Alias: Sweschnikow
KRIMOWKrymov, Nikolai Petrovich (1884 - 1958)
Aliases: Krymow, Krimov, Krimow
(9)SWETLOWSvetlov, Sergei Yakovlevich (1903 - 1964)
Alias: Swetlow
KRINSKIKrinskij, Wladimir Fjodorowitsch (1890 - 1971)
Aliases: Krinsky, Krinski
(8)TATLINTatlin, Vladimir Yevgrafovich (1885 - 1953)
Alias: Tatline
No further details
Alias: Kruglow
(1)TERSATyrsa, Nikolai Andreevich (1887 - 1942)
Aliases: Tirsa, Tersa
KUDNJASCHOWKoudriachov, Ivan Alekseevich (1896 - 1972)
Aliases: Kudriashev, Kudriaschov, Kudrjaschow, Kudnjaschow, Kudriashov, Kudrjasev
(32)TOURJANSKITurjansky, Leonard Viktorovich (1875 - 1945)
Aliases: Tourshansky, Turzhansky, Turzhanskii, Tourjanski, Turjanski, Turshanskij, Turschanski, Turzhansky, Turjansky
KULBINKulbin, Nicolai Ivanovitch (1868 - 1917)
Alias: Koulbine
(10)TSCHAIKOWChaykov [Tchaikov], Iosif Moiseevich (1888 - 1979)
Aliases: Chaikov, Cajkov, Tschaikow, Tchaikov
KUPRIANOWKuprianov, Nicolas (1894 - 1933)
Aliases: Koupreianov, Kupreyanov, Kuprianow, Kupryanov, Kuprejanoff, Kuprejanow, Kupreianoff
(4)TSCHECHONIN, S.Tschechonin, Serge Wassiliewitsch (1878 - 1936)
Aliases: Cechonin, Chekhonin
KUPRINKuprin, Alexander Vasilyevich (1880 - 1960)
Alias: Kouprine
(24)TSCHEKMAZOWChekmazov [Tschekmazow], Ivan Ivanovich (1901 - 1961)
Aliases: Tchekmazov, Tschekmazow, Tschekmazov
KUSNIETZOWKuznetsov, Konstantin Pavlovich (1863 - 1936)(2)TSCHEKREGINChekrygin [Tschekrygin], Vassily Nikolaevich (1897 - 1922)
Aliases: Čekrygin, Chekrigin, Tschekrekin, Tchekrigine, Tchekryguine
KUSTODIEWKustodiev, Boris Mikhaylovich (1878 - 1927)
Aliases: Kustodijew, Kustodiew, Koustodiev, Kustodijeff, Kustodjeff
(10)TSCHERBINOWSKIScherbinovskiy, Dimitri Anfimovitch (1867 - 1926)
Aliases: Sherbinovski, Tscherbinowski
KUZNETZOW, P.Kuznetsov, Pavel Varfolomeevich (1878 - 1968)
Alias: Kuznetzow
(14)TSCHERNISCHOWChernikhov [Tschernichow], Yakov Georgievich (1889 - 1951)
Aliases: Černykov, Tschernichow, Tchernikho, Tschernischow
Not in the catalogLabas, Alexander Arkadewitsch (1900 - 1983)(10)UDALTZOWAUdaltsova, Nadezhda Andreyevna (1886 - 1961)
Aliases: Oudaltsova, Udalzowa, Udalcova
LADOWSKILadovsky, Nikolaj Alexandrowitsch (1881 - 1941)
Aliases: Ladowski, Ladowskij
(14)USATSCHOWUsachev, Alexey Ivanovich (1891 - 1957)
Aliases: Ussacioff, Usatschow
LAPSCHINLapschin, Nikolai Fjodorowitsch (1889 - 1942)
Alias: Lapschin
(8)WASILIEWWasiliew, Piotr (1899 - 1975)(1)
LAWINSKILavinskij, Anton Michajlovic (1893 - 1968)
Aliases: Lawinski, Lawinskij
No further details
Alias: Wasilkow
LEBEDIEWLebedev, Vladimir Vasil'evich (1891 - 1967)
Alias: Lebedew
(21)WASNETZOWVasnetsov, Apollinari Mikhailovich (1856 - 1933)
Aliases: Vasnecov, Wassnetzow, Wasnetsow, Wasnetzow, Wasnezow
LEBLANLeblan, Mikhail Varfolomeevich (1875 - 1940)(3)WESNINVesnin, Alexandr Alexandrovich (1883 - 1959)
Aliases: Vesnine, Wesnin, Wessnin
LEDANTIULe-Dantiu, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1891 - 1917)
Aliases: Le Dantu, Ledantu, Ledantiu, Ledentu
(7)WOLKOWVolkov, Aleksandr Nikolaevitch (1886 - 1957)
Alias: Wolkow
LENTULOWLentulov, Aristarkh Vasilyevich (1882 - 1943)
Aliases: Lentulow, Lentuloff, Lentouloff, Lentoulov
(35)ZETLINZeldin, Chaim
No further details
Alias: Zetlin
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Documenting Your Exhibition History –

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Carmen Gracia – ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964

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'Mythologies quotidiennes', 1964

The cover page of the catalog ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964

Carmen Gracia – ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964
Two additional important facts

‘Figuration Narrative, Paris 1960–1972’ retrospective in 2008

   From April to July 2008 the RNM – Réunion des musées nationaux and the Centre Pompidou organized the exhibition Exhibition Link ‘Figuration Narrative, Paris 1960–1972’ at the Grand Palais, with Jean-Paul Ameline and Bénédicte Ajac as curator.

‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964

The Press Release for the retrospective in 2008 states:
“The ‘Figuration Narrative’ wasn’t proclaimed as a movement as such. It was established through the activity of the art critic Gérald Gassiot-Talabot and the painters Bernard Rancillac and Hervé Télémaque, who organized at the Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris the exhibition Exhibition Link ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ from July 1 – October 30, 1964.

   In the same year 1964 Pop Art triumphs at the Exhibition Link 32nd Biennale di Venezia and conquered Europe, with Robert Rauschenberg being awarded the Gran Premio. [by artist-info: ‘Painting and Sculpture of a Decade 54/64’ closed June 28, 1964 at the Exhibition Link Tate Gallery, London; the ‘Exhibition Link documenta III‘ opened on June 28, 1964, curated by Arnold Bode and Werner Haftmann].

   The 1964 Paris exhibition Exhibition Link ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ reunited 34 [acutally 36 – see our research below] artists (Alleyn, Arnal, Arroyo, Atila, Berni, Bertholo, Bertini, Bettencourt, Beynon, Brusse, Buri, Cremonini, Dado, Fahlström, Foldes, Gaïtis, Geissler,

Gironella, Golub, Gracia, Kalinowski, Klasen, Kramer, Monory, Pistoletto, Rancillac, Raynaud, Raysse, Recalcati, Réquichot, Saint-Phalle, Saul, Télémaque, Voss) who, like their colleagues from the United States were focusing in their works on the contemporary society and related images.”
   In April – June 1977 followed Exhibition Link ‘Mythologies quotidiennes 2’ with 85 artists at the Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, including 15 artists of ‘Mythologies quotidiennes 1’.
   Gérald Gassiot-Talabot explains in the accompanying catalogue the different intentions of the second exhibition.

   The exhibition ‘Figuration Narrative, Paris 1960–1972’ in 2008 and the accompanying catalogue is a profound retrospective of this period, including a long list of exhibitions and events throughout these years, including the important exhibition ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, July – October 1964.

‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964
Two important additional facts on the invited artists

   artist-info added group exhibitions of this period in December 2015 to its database and was looking closer to who was participating as artist at the important exhibition ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ in July 1964.
   Our research did focus on two important issues of information on artists, missing in the 2008 retrospective.
1st Issue – Number of artists: The number of participating artists wasn’t 34 but 36.
2nd Issue – ‘Gracia’: As a custom way of exhibition information, the ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ catalogue lists only the artist’s last name, without the first name. In this list appears the name ‘Gracia’.
Nobody could tell us the first name nor any biographical notes of this artist.

1st Issue – 36 instead of 34 artists

   In the foot note 2 of his text in the ‘Mythologies quotidiennes 2’ (28.4. – 5.6.1977) catalog Gérald Gassiot-Talabot refers to the exhibition ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ in 1964 and mentions “… des artistes invités: [the 34 names] (hors catalogue: Yves Millet et Michael Warren)”.
Therefore the list of the 36 artists reads as follows

November 1, 2016
1964 CatalogOn CatalogOn
ALLEYNAlleyn, Edmund
(1931 - 2004)
(12)GOLUBGolub, Leon
(1922 - 2004)
ARNALArnal, François
(1924 - 2012)
(16)GRACIAGracia, Carmen
ARROYOArroyo, Eduardo
(76)KALINOWSKIKalinowski, H. E. [Horst Egon]
(1924 - 2013)
ATILAAtila, [Atila Biró]
(1931 - 1987)
(14)KLASENKlasen, Peter
BERNIBerni, Antonio
(1905 - 1981)
(18)KRAMERKramer, Harry
(1925 - 1997)
BERTHOLOBertholo, René
(1935 - 2005)
(17)Not in the catalogMillet, Yves
BERTINIBertini, Gianni
(1922 - 2010)
(43)MONORYMonory, Jacques
BETTENCOURTBettencourt, Pierre
(1917 - 2006)
(4)PISTOLETTOPistoletto, Michelangelo
BEYNONBeynon, Eric
(4)RANCILLACRancillac, Bernard
BRUSSEBrusse, Mark
(29)RAYNAUDRaynaud, Jean-Pierre
BURIBuri, Samuel
(34)RAYSSERaysse, Martial
CREMONINICremonini, Leonardo
(1925 - 2010)
(24)RECALCATIRecalcati, Antonio
DADODado, [Miodrag Đurić]
(1933 - 2010)
(32)REQUICHOTRéquichot, Bernard
(1929 - 1961)
FAHLSTRÖMFahlström, Öyvind
(1928 - 1976)
(115)SAINT-PHALLESaint-Phalle, Niki de
[Niki Matthews]
(1930 - 2002)
FOLDESFoldès, Peter
(1924 - 1977)
(14)SAULSaul, Peter
GAITISGaïtis, Yannis
(8)TELEMAQUETélémaque, Hervé
GEISSLERGeissler, Klaus
(5)VOSSVoss, Jan
GIRONELLAGironella, Alberto
(1929 - 1999)
(24)Not in the catalogWarren, Michael
About Leon Golub: His wife Nancy Spero and Leon Golub came to Paris in 1959 and went back to the United States in 1964.
See as well for Leon Golub our post Blog Post Influential Contemporary Art Exhibitions in the 20th and 21st Century, Exhibition Link New Images of Man, Sep – Nov 1959, Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized by Peter Selz.

2nd Issue – ‘GRACIA’ is ‘Carmen Gracia’

   The far more intriguing question was: who is Gracia?
Up to today in all the records for this period and for the ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’ exhibition only the last name ‘Gracia’ is listed.
   We very early came across the name Carmen Gracia, an artist born 1935 in Argentina, but couldn’t find any biographical notes on her neither in France nor in Houston (International Center for the Arts of the Americas, The Museum of Fine Arts) which would connect her to Paris of the 60s and in particular to ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’.
   We researched many exhibitions of this time in Paris. The archives of Gérald Gassiot-Talabot didn’t reveal any hint about Carmen Gracia. Then we continued to search outside France.
We finally were lucky to find Carmen Gracia in two catalogs of the Ljubljanski grafični bienale – Mednarodna Graficna Razstava (Exposition Internationale de Gravure) in Ljubljana, taking part at the 5th and the 6th edition of this biennial:
Exhibition Link Ljubljanski grafični bienale V – 1963 (together with an international selection of 332 artists) and Exhibition Link Ljubljanski grafični bienale VI – 1965 (together with an international selection of 396 artists).
   The biographical notes on Carmen Gracia in the biennial catalogs were a surprise and an answer to our question: Who is ‘Gracia’ in the exhbition ‘Mythologies quotidiennes’, 1964?
Née le 18 mai 1935 à Mendoza (Argentine). Études de peinture à l’Académie Provinciale des Beaux Arts et à l’École des Arts appliqués à Mendoza, et de sculpture à l’École Supérieure des Arts plastiques de l’Université de Cuyo. En 1960 voyage à Pairs. En 1965 boursière du Gouvernement Anglais. Fait actuellement des études à Paris à l’Atelier 17 chez Stanley William Hayter. Participe aux expositions de l’Atelier 17. Participation aux expositions de Paris (1e biennale de gravure), d’Ottawa, etc. Représentée dans des galeries à San Francisco et à Paris.

   Carmen Gracia was therefore very well connected in Paris in the 60s through Atelier 17 and studying there under Stanley William Hayter (1901 – 1988).

At Atelier 17 she met Jennifer Dickson (*1936) from London who introduced her work in England.
Through these contacts she met Anthony Gross (1905 - 1984), at that time head of printmaking at Slade School of Art in London.
Carmen Gracia became a full member of RE (Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers) in 1985.
(From an interview by Hatty Davidson with Carmen Gracia, published in the 'Autumn Newsletter 2014' of the Bankside Gallery, London)
Bankside Gallery Autumn Newsletter 2014

Bankside Gallery Autumn Newsletter 2014
Cover image by Carmen Gracia
'Inner Garden', colored etching
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artist-info insight – Review 2015

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artist-info Review 2015 review 2015
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Cross-linking the exhibition history of more than 149.260 artists, 5.940 curators and 11.500 exhibition venues with more than 496.600 exhibitions provides new insight for evaluation and analytics like exhibition statistics and visualizing art networks.

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Today, January 25, 2016, you find with artist-info 149.265 artists and 5.945 curators in 496.606 shows (1930 – tomorrow) in 11.506 venues in 1.386 cities in 162 countries plus 328 professional and private classified offers.

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