Galerie von Garvens, Hannover – The Gallery of a Collector

Artists / Exhibition History / History / Research
Galerie von Garvens - 2nd Exhibition

Galerie von Garvens
From the 2nd exhibition: China-Porzellan und Chrysanthenum. November 1920

Galerie von Garvens, Hannover – The Gallery of a Collector

Herbert von Garvens (Hannover 1883 – 1953 Bornholm), began collecting during his world tour in 1907. His traveling and research for artists ‘with true creative work, not fashionable style’ led him in 1910 to Antwerp where he discovered by chance in a shop two etchings of James Ensor (1860-1949). The quality of Ensor’s work fascinated him and he met the artist soon after in Ostend. During the following years, he bought from him important paintings, drawings and etchings for his collection. His enthusiasm for Ensor’s work resulted 1913 in the first German monograph on James Ensor, including a complete catalog of his etchings: ‘James Ensor: Maler, Radierer, Komponist; ein Hinweis mit dem vollständigen Katalog seines radierten Werkes als Anhang’.

Galerie von Garvens - 1st Exhibition
Galerie von Garvens – 1st Exhibition, October 1920
James Ensor – Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Radierungen. Paula Modersohn – Gemälde, Zeichnungen
Alt-tibetanisches Kunstgewerbe

During WWI, he participated in founding the Kestner-Gesellschaft in Hannover in 1916 to establish an independent venue for contemporary art, as an alternative to the conservative art policy of the city major. His collection grew constantly, and included important modern artists: Aubrey Beardsley, Gustave Courbet, Alfred Sisley, Robert Delaunay, Alexej Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Oskar Kokoschka, Franz Marc, Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, Albert Weisgerber, Erich Heckel, Karl Junker, Marc Chagall, and George Grosz, as well as Japanese woodcuts. This enabled him to support exhibitions of the Kestner-Gesellschaft with artwork from his collection, among them 10 | Paula Modersohn. Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Radierungen, the retrospective of Paula Modersohn-Becker, to which he lent 18 paintings.


Galerie von Garvens

His widespread interest in the arts like theatre, literature, music, applied arts from Japan, China, Tibet, the South Seas islands, and Africa, besides visual arts, convinced him that the exhibition program of an institutional venue is too limited to show the richness and cultural exchange between the different media, the basis of his enthusiasm. Herbert von Garvens returned beginning 1920 from his war captivity in Barraux in South of France and started with Hanns Krenz, whom he had met in Barraux, cataloging his collection and decided as a consequence of its rich inventory to open it to the public. No place was better predestined for this endeavor than the stately villa of his father, who had died in 1913. His idea was to show art not in an artificial setup in empty spaces. In contrary, he arranged his exhibitions, staged readings and music performances in the privacy of the saloons of his villa. The first exhibition of Galerie von Garvens opened on Friday October 1, 1920, and was devoted to James Ensor’s paintings, drawings, and etchings, Paula Modersohn’s paintings and drawings, and old Tibetan decorative arts.

Galerie von Garvens - 6th Exhibition
Galerie von Garvens – 6th Exhibition, March-April 1921
Russische Kunst – Ikone, Volkskunst, neue Gemälde und Zeichnungen von Archipenko, Chagall, Genin, Golycheff, Alexei von Jawlensky, André Nasnadomoff-Jawlensky, Adja Junker, Kandinsky, Radziwill, Lasar Segall, Werefkin – Soviet-Plakate

His cosmopolitan and very personal approach to showing art, which was looking for diversity instead of following stylistic measures, soon was recognized by national art reviews, like Cicerone. It was celebrated for its high quality, becoming the must to see in the rather provincial town of Hannover. The disaccord between pretension and local limits may have led to edit in September 1922 a gallery handout, entitled ‘Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens’. He propagates in the foreword his mission, and the subjoined list of his exhibitions, the published exhibition catalogs, the artists of his collection, his events, photographs of his exhibitions, and 23 press clippings with comments on his activities want to document the past two years and give an outlook for the upcoming gallery activities. In his ‘Bücherstube’ called reading room he presented his books on Chinese Lyric, Jussuf Abbo, Willi Baumeister, Rusolf Kindermann, and Lasar Segall, besides international art magazines and art editions. Would have his villa with his exhibitions and events been located in Berlin’s Tiergarten or Charlottenburg, visitors would have queued up. In Hannover instead, the future of the Galerie von Garvens became more and more unsecure. Although the economic rise between 1920 and 1922 was supportive for the Gallery, the following hyperinflation end of 1923, with an exchange rate of 4.2 trillion Mark for 1 US-Dollar, was a too difficult challenge and led to its closure end of 1923. The listed upcoming exhibitions until January 1923 could not foresee neither the difficult economics nor the uncertainty of the Weimar Republic, the occupation of the Ruhr area by French troops in January 1923.

Galerie von Garvens - 16th Exhibition
Galerie von Garvens – 16th Exhibition, May-June 1922
Emil Nolde – Aquarelle und Graphik. Exotische Plastik und Kakteen

23 Press Clippings September 1919 – July 1922

The already mentioned 23 press clippings below, copied from the gallery handover, provide a rare insight into how difficult it was for new art, to gain a wider public recognition and acceptance. In the foreword of the gallery handover Herbert von Garvens states that he is interested in new art, not fashionable decorative painting. That a commercial gallery or the program of an institutional exhibition venue may need to stand for stylistic development was for him too much a limitation. For him, starting with the revolutionary work of van Gogh, new art had to be challenging, and should be looked for in all countries worldwide, ignoring borders.

Galerie von Garvens - Bücherstube
Galerie von Garvens – Bücherstube

Exhibitions at Galerie von Garvens, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Der Sturm

Herbert von Garvens claims in the foreword of his gallery handover ‘Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens’ that with his exhibitions he is not looking for representing a specific program, fashion, taste, or to celebrate a new art style. His gallery of a collector wanted to be an alternative of what he knew from the art world around him. There was the Kestner-Gesellschaft in Hannover, which he supported with works of art from his collection and he certainly knew what was up in the metropolis of Berlin. In Berlin, he knew, besides other galleries, Herwarth Walden, director of the ‘Der Sturm’ gallery from before WWI. He presented in June 1921 his own lyrics and compositions in 1921 in the Herbert von Garvens Galerie in Hannover as part of the events, which accompanied the exhibition program (See the critical comment in ‘Hannoverscher Kurier. Juni 1921’, below).
To understand the way Herbert von Garvens wanted to support artists and the arts it is of interest to compare the exhibitions of these three venues in the below table. For the list of all shown artists of group-exhibitions, follow the link to

Herbert von Garvens was not a gallerist, he was not an art dealer, he was not a museum director, and he was not the director of a non-profit space. He was an important collector who wanted to share his enthusiasm and discoveries with the public, at a time, in which new art, the avant-garde was much less accepted than we may be aware of today, 100 years later. The fast development of new positions in the arts until 1933 and after 1945 proved that he was more supportive than his contemporaries thought.

Sources and further reading
‘Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens, Hannover 1922’. Edited by Galerie von Garvens in September 1922.

‘Die Zwanziger Jahre in Hannover: Bildende Kunst, Literatur, Theater, Tanz, Architektur 1916-1933’; catalog of an exhbition held at the Kunstverein Hannover, 12.8. – 30.9.1962; pp. 61-69: Ines Katenhusen: Galerie und Sammlung von Garvens.

‘Ein Außenseiter in der Kunst. Karl Junker und das Junkerhaus in Lemgo’; Editor: Jürgen Scheffler; Schriften des Städtischen Museums Lemgo, Band 12; Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld 2011, ISBN 978-3-89534-912-6; pp. 92-113: Ines Katenhusen: Herbert von Garvens (1883.1957). Ein ‘Kampfgenosse’ der künstlerischen Moderne in Hannover.

September 1920 – December 1923: Comparing the Exhibitions of Galerie von Garvens, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Der Sturm

Galerie von GarvensKestner-GesellschaftGalerie der Sturm
Oct 1920
1 | James Ensor - Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Radierungen. Paula Modersohn - Gemälde, Zeichnungen
Alt-tibetanisches Kunstgewerbe
Sep - Oct 1920
36 | Alexey von Jawlensky
Sep 1920
Reinhard Goering - Paul Klee
Nov 1920
2 | China-Porzellan und Chrysanthenum
Stickereien und Spitzen, Russische Kunst, Kokoschka, Karl Junker, Kubisten, Das schöne Buch, Mode in der Kunst
Nov 1920
37 | Wilhelm Lehmbruck
Gemälde, Zeichnungen, das gesamte graphische Werk
Nov 1920
Johannes Molzahn
Dec 1920
3 | Gemälde moderner Künstler
Handzeichnungen und Graphik Oesterreichischer Künstler. Ostfriesischer und Tiroler Silberschmuck. Elfenbeinarbeiten
Nov - Dec 1920
38 | Weihnachts-Ausstellung
Meisterwerke deutscher Kunst
Dec 1920
Paul Busch - Johannes Molzahn
Galerie von GarvensKestner-GesellschaftGalerie der Sturm
Jan 1921
4 | Oskar Kokoschka, Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Lithographien - Luise Spannring, Keramik - Albert Schulze, Intarsien nach Entwürfen von Johan Thorn-Prikker und Kurt Schwitters
Jan - Feb 1921
39 | Jung-Tschechische Kunst - Wolf Röhricht
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen
Jan 1921
Albert Gleizes - Jacques Villon - Louis Marcoussis - Jules Evola - Tour Donas - Sonja Delaunay-Terk
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen
Feb 1921
5 | Oskar Kokoschka
Die Sonnenuhr, Graphik aus dem Gefangenenlager Fort Barraux. Chinesische Jade-, Nephrit- und Speckstein-Schnitzereien, Wiener Werkstätte und Werkstätten Flügel-Schmidt, Hannover. Zeichnungen von Geisteskranken
Feb - Mar 1921
40 | Junge Niederländische Kunst
Georg Grosz - Maurice Vlaminck
Feb 1921
K. L. Boguslavskaja
Stickereien nach eigenen Entwürfen - Fünf Kostüme für Tänzerinnen

Feb 1921
Jwan Puni
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen
Mar - Apr 1921
6 | Russische Kunst
Ikone, Volkskunst, neue Gemälde und Zeichnungen von Archipenko, Chagall, Genin, Golycheff, Alexei von Jawlensky, André Nasnadomoff-Jawlensky, Adja Junker, Kandinsky, Radziwill, Lasar Segall, Werefkin. Soviet-Plakate
Mar 1921 - Apr 1921
41 | 4. Ausstellung der Hannoverschen Sezession
Mar 1921
Alexander Archipenko
Skulpturen, Skulpto-Malereien, Aquarelle, Tuschzeichnungen, Bleistiftzeichnungen
Apr - May 1921
42 | Heinrich Campendonk - Carl Hofer
Apr 1921
Kurt Schwitters
Merzbilder, Merzzeichnungen
May - Jun 1921
7 | Irmgard Halmhuber (Gedächtnisausstellung)
Email-Arbeiten, Zeichnungen
Neuerwerbungen der Galerie 1920/21
May - Jun 1921
43 | Das junge Italien
May 1921
Robert Delaunay
Gemälde, Aquarelle
Jun - Jul 1921
8 | Alte Glasmalerei aus Tirol, Oberbayern, China
Neue Glasmalereien von Brey, Burger-Mühlfeld, Dexel, Düvelmeyer, Hildebrandt, Kuron, Molzahn, Schwitters, Steinitz
Jun - Jul 1921
Rudolf Bauer - Vjera Biller
Aug 1921
9 | Jussuf M. Abbo
Plastik, Zeichnungen, Radierungen
Aug 1921 - Sep 1921
44 | Aquarelle moderner Künstler - Conrad Felixmüller
Jul - Aug 1921
Paul Klee - Hans Mattis Teutsch
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Lithographien, Radierungen
Sep 1921
10 | Alexander Archipenko
Retrospektive Ausstellung. Zeichnungen Aquarelle Bildhauerwerke Sculpto-Peinture
Sep 1921
Zehn Jahre Sturm
Oct - Nov 1921
11 | Alfred Kubin
Zeichnungen, Lithographien
Oct - Nov 1921
45 | Ostasiatische Kunst
Oct 1921
Nell Walden
Ölbilder, Glasbilder, Tempera, Aquarelle
Nov - Dec 1921
12 | Japanische und chinesische Tuschzeichnungen und Farbenholzschnitte
Robert Michel, Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Nov 1921
Jacoba van Heemskerck
Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Glasmosaiken
Dec 1921 - Jan 1922
46 | Hannoversche Sezession - August Heitmüller - Leni Zimmermann-Heitmüller
Bildnisse, Genreszenen, Gemälde, Aquarelle, Linolschnitte
Dec 1921
Erich Buchholz
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Holzbilder, Zeichnungen
Galerie von GarvensKestner-GesellschaftGalerie der Sturm
Jan - Feb 1922
13 | Paul Klee
Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik aus den Jahren 1903–1921
Jan 1922
47 | Max Pechstein
Jan 1922
Arnold Topp - Adolf Bauer-Saar
Ölgemälde, Aquarelle, Glasbilder, Holzschnitte
Feb 1922
László Moholy-Nagy - László Peri
Mar 1922
14 | Neue Kunst aus dem Besitz der Galerie
Feb 1922 - Mar 1922
48 | Meisterwerke deutscher Kunst aus Hannoverschem Privatbesitz
Kees van Dongen - H. F. Bieling - Gerlwh - Gemälde, Aquarelle, Plastik
Mar 1922
Willi Baumeister - Fernand Léger
Gemälde, Aquarelle
Apr 1922
15 | George Grosz
Gemälde, geklebte Bilder, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen
Mar - Apr 1922
49 | Hannoversche Sezession
Peiffer-Watenphul - Seiffert-Wattenberg
Apr 1922
Georg von Poschedajew
Entwürfe für Theaterdekorationen und Köstüme
May - Jun 1922
16 | Emil Nolde
Aquarelle und Graphik. Exotische Plastik und Kakteen
May - Jun 1922
50 | Berliner Sezession
May 1922
Kurt Schwitters - L. Kosinzova-Ehrenburg
Jul - Aug 1922
17 | Willy Baumeister
Gemälde - Kinderzeichnungen
Jun 1922
51 | Emil Nolde
Jun 1922
Albert Gleizes - Walter Krug
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Farbige Lithographien, Holzschnitte - Malereien aus Papierfarben (Pa-Fa-Ma)
Aug 1922
Gösta Adrian-Nielsson - Zadkine
Gemälde, Aquarelle
Sep 1922
18 | Walter Dexel - Gemälde, Hinterglasbilder, Aquarelle
Reinhold [Reinhard] Hilker - Bilderbogen
Sep 1922
52 | Hannoversche Sezession - Wilhelm Morgner - Käthe Steinitz
Sep 1922
Serge Charchoune - Helene Grünhoff
Démonstration du 'Cubisme Ornemental' - Sculptures
Oct - Nov 1922
19 | Otto Gleichmann - Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen. Kurt Schwitters - genagelte Bilder, Merz-Zeichnungen. Wilhelm Gross, der Maskenschnitzer von Hannover
Oct 1922
53 | Paula Modersohn-Becker
Oct 1922
Louis Marcoussis
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Glasbilder
Oct - Dec 1922
Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922
Galerie van Diemen & Co, Berlin
Nov - Dec 1922
54 | Von Carus bis Burger-Mühlfeld - Plastik von Emy Roeder - M. Steger - C. M. Schreiner
Nov 1922
Johannes Itten
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Plastiken 1914-1922
Dec 1922
20 | Alte Hinterglasmalerei aus Oberbayern und Tirol. Photographien aus Java, Bali, Südsee, China, Peru, Mexiko, Afrika
Dec 1922
Alexander Bortnyik - Paul Furhmann - Oscar Nerlinger
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen - Zeitbilder, Klebebilder
Galerie von GarvensKestner-GesellschaftGalerie der Sturm
Jan - Feb 1923
21 | Otto Dix - Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Graphik
Jan - Feb 1923
55 | El Lissitzky - Max Burchartz
Jan 1923
Johannes Molzahn - Robert Michel
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Holzschnitte
Feb - Mar 1923
56 | Wassily Kandinsky
Feb 1923
László Moholy-Nagy - László Peri
Gemälde, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Plastiken
Mar - Apr 1923
22 | Russische Künstler. Archipenko, Jawlensky, Chagall, Kandinsky, Puni, Bogislawskaja, Zadkin, Schuschun, Max Band, Elena Lißner
Mar 1923
Laurence Atkinson - William Wauer
Apr 1923
57 | Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
Apr 1923
M. H. Maxy
May 1923
23 | Christian Rohlfs - Aquarelle und graphische Arbeiten Wilhelm Meyer, Braunschweig
May 1923 - Jun 1923
58 | László Móhóly-Nagy
May 1923
Emilio Pettorutti - Robert Storm-Petersen
Jun 1923
T. Zarnower - M. Szczuka - Aurel Bernáth - Lothar Schreyer
Jul 1923
24 | Otto Karguth - Fritz Stuckenberg - Chagall - Otto Modersohn
Jul 1923 - Sep 1923
Die jungen Dänen
Sep 1923
25 | Max Beckmann - Hans Meyboden - Werner Gilles
Sep - Oct 1923
59 | Moderne Bilder aus hannoverschem Privatbesitz, 1. Ausstellung
Sep 1923
Arnold Topp - Wilhelm Wulff
Gemälde, Tempera / Aquarelle, Glasbilder - Holz-Skulpturen
Oct - Nov 1923
26 | Korbarbeiten von Hans Seutemann, Hannover
Oct 1923
Burger-Mühlfeld - Haffenrichter - Kádár - Kesting - Teutsch
Nov - Dec 1923
27 | Konstruktivisten. Moholy-Nagy, Lissitzky, Baumeister, Schlemmer
Sammlung von Garvens
Nov 1923
Ernst Oscar Albrecht - Anne Reibstein-Albrecht
Ölbilder, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen, Linoleumschnitte
Dec 1923
60 | Weihnachtsmesse
Dec 1923
Béla Kádár
Ölgemälde, Pastelle, Aquarelle, Zeichnungen

Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens

Die Ausstellungen, die die GALERIE VON GARVENS seit ihrer Eröffnung am 1. Oktober 1920 veranstaltete, folgten zwanglos aufeinander und stellen kein Programm dar. Es gilt uns nie eine Richtung als die alleinseligmachende zu proklamieren, unsere Aufgabe sehen wir einzig darin, wahrhaftem Kunstschaffen im Gegensatz zur Mode und zum Geschmack des Publikums die Wege zu ebnen. Daß dieses bei einem Privatunternehmen nicht umfassend fein kann, versteht sich von selbst. Das Wertvolle nach der Revolution in der Kunst, die mit Van Gogh etwa einsetzte und mit dem Namen «Expressionismus», bezeichnet wurde, wird aber bleiben, wenn auch der Expressionismus «tot» ist, seitdem er Mode geworden ist und man eine banale Dekorationsmalerei mit diesem Namen bezeichnet, die uns genau so abgeschmackt vorkommen wird wie der Jugendstil seligen Angedenkens, wenn erst die Erkenntnis aufdämmert, d. h. wenn ein neuer sogenannter Stil Mode wird. Darum auch die Ablehnung, die Verständnislosigkeit vor Werken, die schon den neuen Willen ankündigen, die nach allem Überschwang der aufgewühlten Zeit die Klarheit bringen möchten. / Die Erkenntnis der Kunst Japans war das Verdienst der Impressionisten. Jetzt beginnt erst die Größe Chinas heraufzudämmern und die Kultur der sogenannten primitiven Völker im Gegensatz zur Kulturlosigkeit unserer zivilisierten, materiellen Zeit. / Die bleibenden Werte unserer Zeit sind geschaffen worden, sie werden nichts von ihrer Schönheit einbüßen, sie sind die sichersten Wertmesser der Zeit. Der jugendliche Tod vieler dieser Künstler besiegelte ihr Werk und erhielt darin die Frische, die Jugend, die Begeisterung und bewahrte es vor Stagnation und Routine. Alle Länder haben teil an diesem Werk, das Weltgefühl drückt sich darin aus, denn in der Kunst gibt es keine Grenzen. / «Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens» soll eine kleine Propagandaschrift sein, sie bringt einige Abbildungen nach Photos, die während verschiedener Ausstellungen aufgenommen wurden, somit den Freunden der Galerie eine Erinnerung, anderen soll sie zeigen, was wir anstreben und in welchem Sinne wir weiterarbeiten werden. / Untere Vortragsabende begleiteten die Ausstellungen ganz zwanglos, auch sie kein Programm, nur Wille fördernd zu wirken. / Es gilt weiter zu messen, zu werten und zu bewahren.
Herbert von Garvens-Garvensburg.
[Gallery Handover Foreword, September 1922]

All artists in the listed exhibitions 1920-1923 and of the list 'Hauptwerke der Sammlung Herbert von Garvens-Garvensburg', in 'Zwei Jahre Galerie von Garvens'.
Jussuf Abbo (1888-1953)Otto [Ottolange] Lange (1879-1944)
Alexander Porfirjowitsch Archipenko (1887-1964)Else Lasker-Schüler (1876-1945)
Max Band (1900-1974)Fernand Léger (1881-1955)
Ernst Barlach (1870-1938)Jelena Arturowna Liessner-Blomberg (1897-1978)
Willi Baumeister (1889-1955)El [Lazar Markovich] Lissitzky (1890-1941)
Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898)August Macke (1887-1914)
Max Beckmann (1884-1950)Franz Marc (1880-1916)
Ksenia Leonidowna Boguslawskaja (1892-1972)Max Mayrshofer (1875-1950)
Georges Braque (1882-1963)Hans Meyboden (1901-1965)
Heinrich Brey (1872-1960)Otto Georg Willy Meyer (1890-1958)
Max Burchartz (1915-1941)Robert Michel (1897-1983)
Fritz Burger-Mühlfeld (1882-1969)Otto Modersohn (1865-1943)
Heinrich Campendonk (1889-1957)Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907)
Marc Chagall (1887-1985)László Móhóly-Nagy (1895-1946)
Serge Iwanowitsch Charchoune (1888-1975)Johannes Molzahn (1892-1965)
Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)Adolphe Monticelli (1824-1886)
Robert Delaunay (1885-1941)Edvard Munch (1863-1944)
Walter Dexel (1890-1973)Andrej Nesnakomoff-Jawlensky (1902-1984)
Otto Dix (1891-1969)Emil Nolde (1867-1953)
Guillermo Duvelmeyer (1894-1957)Jules [Julius Mordecai] Pascin (1885-1930)
James Ensor (1860-1949)Max Peiffer Watenphul (1896-1976)
Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956)Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)Ivan Albertovich [Jean Pougny] Puni (1892-1956)
Robert Genin (1884-1943)Franz Radziwill (1895-1983)
Werner Gilles (1894-1961)Christian Rohlfs (1849-1938)
Otto Gleichmann (1887-1963)Félicien Rops (1833-1898)
Jefim Golyscheff (1897-1970)Henri Julien Rousseau (1844-1910)
Wilhelm Ernst Julius Gross (1883-1974)Oskar Schlemmer (1888-1943)
George [Georg Ehrenfried] Grosz (1893-1959)Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884-1976)
Irmgard Halmhuber Albert Schulze (1868-1946)
Raoul Hausmann (1886-1971)Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948)
Erich Heckel (1883-1970)Lasar Segall (1891-1957)
Lily Hildebrandt (1887-1974)Hans Seutemann
Reinhard Hilker (1899-1961)Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
Alexej von Jawlensky (1864-1941)Luise Spannring (1894-1982)
Karl Junker (1850-1912)Käte Traumann Steinitz (1889-1975)
Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)Fritz Stuckenberg (1881-1944)
Otto Karguth Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938)Heinrich Johann Vogeler (1872-1942)
Paul Klee (1879-1940)Albert Weisgerber (1878-1915)
Oscar Kokoschka (1886-1980)Marianne von Werefkin (1860-1938)
Alfred Kubin (1877-1959)Adja Yunkers (1900-1983)
Viktor Joseph Kuron (1896-1952)Ossip Zadkine (1890-1967)



Das Kunstblatt. Sept. 1919.
Die Sammlung Herbert von Garvens-Garvensburg in Hannover ist die Schöpfung eines Mannes, der das Gebot der Zeit verstanden hat. Bei aller leidenschaftlichen Liebe zu den ekstatischen Werken der Gegenwart hat er sich das Gefühl für die Schönheiten der voraufgegangenen Epoche bewahrt. Bei aller innigen Anteilnahme an den Werken der Jüngsten besitzt er die Erkenntnis von der geistesgeschichtlichen Notwendigkeit des Vergangenen. Darum versucht er in feiner Sammlung die geheimen Wurzeln sichtbar zu machen, aus denen die neue Kunst Leben und Wachstum saugt. Will man das Wesen feiner Sammlung auf einen kurzen Nenner bringen, so mag man sagen, daß sie die Entwicklung von Courbet zu Kandinsky deutlich macht. Aber solche Formulierungen sind doch nur eng begrenzt und treffen nicht das Ganze. Vielleicht muß man sagen, daß sie das Ringen des modernen Menschen mit der Natur illustriert, daß sie den Kampf zwischen Realität und Phantasie vor Augen führt, vielleicht auch – aber das klingt schon tendenziös – kann man behaupten, sie zeige die fortschreitende Zertrümmerung der naturhaften Erscheinung zugunsten einer von innen her schaffenden, ekstatisch erregten Willenstätigkeit, die schließlich in abstrakten, glühenden Farbenströmen verzischt.
— — — — — —
Die modernen Sammler unserer Tage spielen im Kampf um die neue Kunst eine wichtige Rolle. Unbeirrt durch das Geschrei des Marktes, unbeirrt auch durch das leidenschaftliche Für und Wider kunstpsychologischer Kontroversen fügen sie in der Stille Stein auf Stein. In dem Gebäude, das sie errichten, in dieser Sammlung, die eben in ihren Hauptwerken an uns vorüberzog, sind dieselben Kräfte lebendig, die in den schaffenden Künstlern wirksam lind. Aber während diese mit der glühenden Einseitigkeit und Verbissenheit von Priestern und Propheten ihren Anschauungen Verbreitung und Geltung zu verschaffen suchen, bemühen sich die großen, feinfühlenden Sammler, das Moment der Entwicklung zu verdeutlichen, den ewigen Strom fühlbar zu machen, der Altes und Neues, Vergangenes und Zukünftiges unlöslich verbindet.
Paul Erich Küppers.

Cicerone. Okt. 1920.
Die neugegründete Galerie von Garvens hat ihre erste Ausstellung eröffnet und es muß gesagt werden, daß Hannover um eine bedeutende Sehenswürdigkeit reicher geworden ist, seitdem sich die Sammlung Herbert von Garvens in einen der intimsten Kunstsalons verwandelt hat. Freilich scheint dieses neue Unternehmen in erster Linie von idealen und erst darnach von rein merkantilen Gesichtspunkten bestimmt zu sein. [continued, not part of the gallery handover:] Der Sammler von Garvens möchte sich keineswegs von den wertvollsten Stücken seiner Galerie trennen, im Gegenteil, der Handel soll ihm Mittel sein, seine Sammlung nach verschiedenen Seiten auszubauen und zu intensivieren. Im Vorwort zu dem schönen Katalog, der der Eröffnungsausstellung gilt, ist zu lesen: „Die Galerie von Garvens wurde gegründet, um eine Sammlung weiteren Kreisen zugänglich zu machen, um Kunst wirken zu lassen. Der Sammler wird, um nicht der Einseitigkeit des Nur-Sammelns zu verfallen, zum Händler, die Kunstwerke strömen intensiveres Leben aus, sie leben und spiegeln sich in den Augen vieler, sie wandern — —.” Daß die Galerie in ihrer neuen Form den Charakter der vornehmen Privatsammlung beibehalten [will], steigert jedenfalls den Genuß der dargebotenen Dinge um ein Beträchtliches. Was hier an erstklassigen Bildern der Paula Modersohn und von James Ensor neben Einzelstücken von Marc, Chagall, Archipenko, Henri Rousseau, Leger, Kokoschka u. a. gezeigt wird, grüßt den Betrachter von der Höhe eines allgemeinen Sammelniveaus herab, das Achtung fordert. Europäisches mischt sich in fein abgestimmter Nuancierung mit Asiatischem. Chinesische Rollbilder, japanische Farbenholzschnitte, Alt-tibetaniscbes Kunstgewerbe (dieses leider nicht so überzeugend im Sinne einer neuentdeckten Kunstprovinz, als man gehofft hatte) sind an Wänden und in Vitrinen mit auserlesenem Geschmack verteilt. Und wenn man etwas bedauert, dann die Tatsache, daß neben all diesen vollwertigen Proben neuen und alten Kunstschaffens auch Outsider wie etwa der verstorbene Lemgoer Maler und Schnitzer Karl Junker, der zeitlebens nichts als ein krasser Dilettant gewesen und der Hannoversche Handwerker Wilhelm Groß, eine Art von verwässertem Rousseau, den Künstlerlaune entdecken ließ, hier ebenfalls seriös in Erscheinung treten. Solche Entgleisungen sind abzulehnen. Sie desavouieren das Programm dieses prächtigen Unternehmens, von dem man noch viel erwarten darf.

Hannoversche Zeitung. Nov. 1920.
Die Galerie von Garvens in der Jägerstraße hatte in voriger Woche zu einer ganz besonderen Ausstellung eingeladen: Chinesisches Porzellan in Verbindung mit einer Chrysanthemum-Ausstellung Kann eine solche Vermengung von Kunst und Natur nicht immer ganz unbedenklich erscheinen, so liegt in diesem Falle die Sache doch anders. Schon dadurch, daß man sich weise nur auf diese eine Blumenart beschränkt und sie nur in einigen wenigen, aber ganz auserlesenen Exemplaren ausgestellt hatte, war das stets erforderliche Gleichgewicht von Kunst und Blumendekoration gegeben. Auch war die Einheit der ganzen Veranstaltung insofern gewahrt, als ja Porzellan und Chrysanthemum dasselbe Heimatland, die Wunderwelt des fernen Ortens, haben, und so ist auch wohl dieser gemeinsame Ursprung die Ursache, daß diese vielgestaltigen und vielfarbigen Naturprodukte mit den für unter europäisches Empfinden wenigstens oft so eigenartigen und manchmal auch bizarren Kunstgegenständen eine so entzückende Harmonie bilden können, wie es hier in der Galerie von Garvens geschah.

Hannoverscher Anzeiger. Febr. 1921
Wanderung durch die Galerie von Garvens-Garvensburg. Schimmernd und phantastisch für jedes Auge sind die Wunder des Kunstgewerbes, die wie aus dem Reich von “Taufend und einer Nacht” wirken. Da sind zunächst Schöpfungen der Radier-Nadel von James Ensor, dem flandrischen Künstler. Norbert Jacques nennt sie mit Recht “zaubrische Schöpfungen einer seltsamen Vermählung von Vision und Licht. Er malt Dinge in einem Perlmutter, der das warme Leben von Menschenfleisch atmet.” Da sind vor allem prachtvolle Erzeugnisse unserer einheimischen Kunstgewerbler und Kunstgewerblerinnen, Meisterstickereien von Frau Tucky Flügel. Auf schwarzen Wandbehängen heben sich glitzernde, reich mit bunten Perlen, Gold und Silber gestickte Muster ab, die der Vorstellung die Pracht indischer Paläste vorgaukeln.
Man wandert weiter zu den Silbergefäßen, den graziösen Messingkelchen und Bechern aus den Wiener Werkstätten, man staunt über die eigentümlichen Sachen aus Linoleum-Schnitt, die in ihrer Wirkung ein wenig absurd find.
Mit dem Anschauen der zierlichen Elfenbeinschnitzereien, der Intarsien, der mannigfaltigen keramischen Arbeiten ist der Reichtum der Galerie kaum erschöpft. Erwähnt sei auch noch der in der Garvens-Galerie stattgefundene Vortrag des Freiherrn von Puttkammer über den chinesischen Jadestein, von dem viele kunstreiche Dinge zu einer kostbaren Sammlung vereinigt sind. Der Jadestein wurde schon im grauen Altertum zu Werkzeugen aller Art, zu Säbelgriffen, Amuletten, Waffen, ja sogar zu Pfahlbauten verarbeitet. Für die Chinesen gilt er aha der schönste aller Steine und regt mit seinen verschiedenartigen Farbtönen die Fantasie der Yankees zum bildnerischen Schaffen an. Die wertvollsten Sorten werden in Stücke zerhauen, die Adern herausgesägt und zur Hauptzierde benutzt.
Isidore Kaulbach.

Der Ziehbrunnen. 1921. Heil 2.
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Die Galerie von Garvens am gleichen Platz macht schon die Sonderstellung des Besitzers innerhalb des Kunsthandels interessant und feuilletonwert. Aus Liebe zur Kunst hat Herr v. Garvens das Haus seiner Väter zur Kunstaustellung und -handlung eingerichtet. Da gerade zwei Ausstellungen wechselten, kam ich in ein kunterbuntes, atelierhaftes Milieu der alten Räume. Dort standen zu Füßen einer riesigen Bibliothek noch bemooste Negerplastiken und grinsten einen Segall an. Hier lag George Grosz Arm in Arm mit einem von Fahrscheinen und Tuchfetzen umgebenen, aufgenagelten Kochlöffeltorso Schwitters. Herr von Garvens liebt das Groteske, ebenso sehr die ernste Kunst. Seine Sammlung von Ensor und der Paula Modersohn kursiert zur Zeit in allen Städten, die etwas auf ihr Kunstleben geben. Wundervoll waren die Zeichnungen Kokoschkas an einigen Wänden, die Kokoschka als einen sehr großen modernen Deutschen zu erkennen geben. Was in Mappen herumstand und herumlag war eine Sehensorgie mehrerer Stunden: Nolde, Rohlfs, Heckel, Jawlensky, Lange drehten sich mit anderen Zeitgenoffen im Kaleidoskop neuer Kunst.
In Berlin in es schwierig bei kurzem Aufenthalt alle Rosinen des Kunstkuchens auszusortieren.
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Das Kunstblatt. Mai 1921.
Eine Ausstellung russischer Kunst. Nicht in den vordersten Reihen, in Berlin, München oder Wien, wo man sie viel eher erwartet hätte, sondern still und bescheiden, – aber sorgfältig durchdacht und zusammengefaßt, dabei echtrussisch aufwühlend, weckend und nicht nur äußerlich farbig – inmitten der konservativen Hindenburgstadt Hannover, die bei dieser Gelegenheit durch ihr zweites, gänzlich abweichendes Gesicht überrascht hat.
Still und bescheiden. Denn abgesehen von einigen Russen, die sich bereits vor dem Kriege in Westeuropa, besonders in deutschen Landen und Sammlungen, eine gewisse Heimatsberechtigung erworben haben, ist es doch heute kaum denkbar, jenseits der festverschlossenen Türen des Mutterlandes, auch nur einen geringen Teil dessen in einer Ausstellung zusammenzubringen, was zu einer näheren Einführung in russische Kunst notwendigerweise gehört. Vor allem – zu einer Einführung in jene, in weiter Ferne zurückliegende, halbverhüllte und von ihrem eigenen inneren Schein verklärte Welt, die zugleich Urquell und Reinkultur, Sehnsucht und Erfüllung tiefster russischer Wesenheit bedeutet. Das ist die altrussische, im XIV. Jahrhundert erblühte Heiligenbildermalerei, die sogenannte lkonopis. Ein Gebiet, auf das man selbst in Rußland erst in den letzten Jahren richtig aufmerksam geworden ist, während man im Abendlande bisher überhaupt kaum etwas Nennenswertes davon gehört, und noch weniger zu sehen bekommen hat.
Es muß daher als ein kleines Geheimnis der Galerie von Garvens bezeichnet werden – für das wir ihr zu Dank verpflichtet sind -, wieso es ihr gelungen ist, einen ganzen Ausstellungsraum mit Stücken zu füllen, die z. T. einer Zeit entstammen, welche auf den wichtigsten, grundlegenden Abschnitt der russischen Geistesgeschichte gefolgt ist, der etwa um 1700 abgeschlossen wurde.
Dr. Fannina W. Hasse
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Ararat. Mai 1921.
Wer in diesen Tagen die schönen Räume der Galerie von Garvens betrat, war geblendet von den glühenden Farbenklängen, die ihm von den Wänden entgegenflammten. Robuste Gesundheit, überströmendes Lebensgefühl, erdhafte Freude und ein Schwelgen in ungebrochenen Farben gab dem Schauenden die Gewißheit, der Kunst eines jungen, unverbrauchten Volkes gegenüberzustehen.
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Die russische Ausstellung der Galerie von Garvens ist ein Ereignis für Hannover. Sie ist so glücklich angeordnet, daß man immer wieder seine Freude daran haben muß und nur eine Pflicht erfüllt, wenn man hier des begeisterten Sammlers Herbert von Garvens-Garvensburg und seines treuen Mitarbeiters Hanns Krenz gedenkt. Der Kestner-Gesellschaft, die vier Jahre lang allein in Hannover der jungen Kunst den Weg zu bahnen suchte, ist in dem neuen Unternehmen nicht -wie man glauben möchte – ein Konkurrent, sondern ein von denselben Überzeugungen erfüllter Kampfgenosse erstanden. Freundschaftliche Beziehungen verbinden die beiden Institute, deren vereintes Wirken auch in der Folgezeit nicht nur in Hannover, sondern auch darüber hinaus Widerhall und ermunternde Zustimmung finden möge.
P. E. Küppers.

Hannoverscher Kurier. April 1921.
Midia Pines trug am 23. April in der Galerie von Garvens Dostojewskis Erzählung: “Die Sanfte” völlig frei vor. Es war aber weniger die, allerdings bewunderungswerte, Gedächtnisleistung, als die ungemein schichte und überzeugende Art des Vortrages, die die vollste Anerkennung verdient. Die tiefgehende Wirkung auf alle Zuhörer wurzelte zunächst natürlich in der meisterhaften Kunst Dostojewskis, der diesen Monolog am Grabe einer Vernunft- und Zwangsehe erschütternd wie den Schrei eines Tieres gestaltet hat. Dieses tiefmenschliche Erleben der schuldlosen Schuld hat die Vortragende ganz zu ihrem eigenen gemacht, und nur so gelang es ihr, jeden Nebengedanken an Kunst zu löschen und in den Bann der Erzählung zu zwingen, als lauschte man einem wirklichen Bericht, der Seelenbeichte des Helden selbst. Der Besuch auch dieser Veranstaltung war beschämend. Bis die Hannoveraner einsehen, daß diese Veranstaltungen der Galerie von Garvens in dieser Stadt seltene Kunsterlebnisse bieten, wird es wohl zu spät – und die Galerie gezwungen sein, solche Darbietungen einzustellen.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Mai 1921.
Neuerwerbungen 1920/21 und die Arbeiten von J. Halmhuber bilden die Gegenstände dieser Ausstellung.
Einen Querschnitt durch die jüngste Kunst zu geben, kann kaum Aufgabe einer Privatgalerie sein. Was an Neuerwerbungen gezeigt wird, bedeutet auch hier einen kleinen Ausschnitt aus der vielumstrittenen, lebendigen Kunst. Aufgabe konnte lediglich sein, aufzuweisen, daß diese Dinge zu uns gehören, daß sich unter ihnen leben läßt, und über die nicht geringen Schwierigkeiten der Beschaffung ein echtes persönliches Verhältnis als allein ausschlaggebenden Nenner bei der Auswahl zu setzen. Sie ist als glänzend erfüllt zuzugeben, auch dann, wenn man im einzelnen anderer Anficht über diesen oder jenen Künstler sein muß. Ich kenne prinzipielle Gegner der jüngsten Kunst, die sich dem Zauber des Ganzen nicht entziehen konnten und ihn offen zugaben. Ein besseres Lob für eine Galerieleitung gibt es nicht. Es zu verbreiten ist Pflicht, wenn man in dieser Stelle eine wichtige Kulturstätte Hannovers erblickt, und wenn man das erschreckend geringe Verständnis für die Leistung kennt.
V. C. Habicht.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Mai 1921.
In dem verdunkelten, durch Kerzen erleuchteten Hauptraum der Galerie sprach dann vor dem ergreifenden Selbstbildnis der Künstlerin Hans Kaiser im Auftrag des Deutschen Werkbundes. Er berührte behutsam den Zauber der Arbeiten des 21jährigen Mädchens, sah den Grund in der Gläubigkeit des begnadeten Geschöpfes und nannte ihre Werke “Spiele vor Gott”. Er pries die Demut dieser Künstlerin, die endlich einmal ernst gemacht mit der immer wieder vergeblich erhobenen Forderung, nämlich selbst in die Werkstätten zu gehen und die beglückende Einheit der alten schlichten kunsthandwerklichen Gegenstände durch ganze Hingabe an den Entwurf und die eigenhändige Ausführung zu erreichen. Die Künstlerin und die Arbeiterin, zu der sie sich freiwillig, aus Liebe und weitsichtigem Verstehen ihrer Zeit gemacht, habe er im Namen seines Bundes und führender Männer wie Poelzig, Behrens u. a. als ein Vorbild zu ehren. Er kränzte ihr Bild im Auftrage des Deutschen Werkbundes.
V. C. Habicht.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Juni 1921.
Herr Walden, der sehr selbstbewußt am Flügel saß, kann nun unmöglich von einem ernsthaften Musiker erwarten, daß er auf diese Art von Musik näher eingeht. Das letzte Stück “Nachtgesang” konnte wenigstens etwas mit dieser Entgleisung aussöhnen Diese Komposition ist nur entsetzlich lang, auch entfaltete der Vortragende beim Fortissimo reichlich robuste und wenig künstlerische Kraftmeierei. Statt zu applaudieren, was in äußerst bescheidenen Grenzen geschah, hätte ich es für angebracht gehalten, wenn das kleine Häuflein Publikum den ältesten anwesenden Herrn abgeordnet hätte, um dem Künstler für seine Arbeit am Flügel bei der Hitze stumm die Hand zu drücken.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Juli 1921.
In der Galerie von Garvens trug Hans Schiebelhuth eigene Geschichte vor.
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Sprache ohne die Direktion der Logik ist Kaleidoskop und Artikulation, wirkt nur durch den absoluten Gefühlswert der einzelnen Glieder der Wortreihen und den Unwert aller Worte, die Ausdrucksbedeutung der Laute selbst, der zärtlichen bbbb und boshaften tztztz, der hindämmernden llll und melancholischen uuuu. Gegen die Benutzung dieser Ausdrucksmittel läßt sich an sich nichts einwenden. Wogegen ließe sich auch an lieh etwas einwenden? Man müßte sich erst über den Zweck der Weltgeschichte verständigen …

Hannoverscher Kurier. Aug. 1921.
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Die Galerie eröffnet gelegentlich dieser Ausstellung ihre neu eingerichtete Bücherstube, die in einem zum Verweilen einladenden Raum äußerst geschmackvoll untergebracht ist. Es liegen hier sämtliche Drucke der Marées-Gesellschaft und die Mappen, denen die in den übrigen Räumen ausgestellten Blätter entnommen find, sowie fast sämtliche Neuerscheinungen von Werken über bildende und schöne, neue Literatur aus.

Hannoversche Zeitung. Sept. 1921.
Drei große Namen decken für uns heute den Begriff russischer Kunst: Kandinsky, Chagall und Archipenko. Kandinsky ist der einzige bis jetzt, der imstande ist, geistige Komplexe von Tiefe und Weite nur in Form und Farbe auszudrücken mit Ausschaltung jeder Gegenständlichkeit. Chagall bedient sich naturalistischer Formen, aber er zerbricht und verwendet sie nach seinem eigenen Gesetz. Er ist der erste Gestalter der russischen Volksseele. Archipenko ist an sich Plastiker. Wir kennen ihn aber auch als Zeichner, Aquarellisten und als den Erfinder einer neuen Kunstform, der Skulptomalerei. Die Ansichten über den Wert der Aufhebung der Grenzen zwischen den einzelnen Künsten sind verschieden. Tatsache ist jedenfalls, daß der Trieb zur Vereinigung von Plastik und Malerei schon immer vorhanden war in der Bemalung der Plastik. Neu ist das Bestreben, die Plastik nur zur Verstärkung und Gestaltung einer Bildwirkung zu benutzen.
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Archipenko gehört zweifellos zu den stärksten Begabungen unserer Zeit, aber Zeitgenossenschaft bedeutet immer eine Grenze des Wartens. Wie weit Gleichzeitigkeit untere Schätzung nach oben oder nach unten beeinflußt, wissen wir nicht. Nur aus der Entfernung kann man die Höhe der Berge unterscheiden. Aber da untere Zeit soviel stärker das Bedürfnis hat, das fließende Leben mitzuleben, sich auch des Relativen alles Urteilens sehr klar bewußt ist, tut es nichts, den lebenden Künstler dem großen Ganzen gegenüber zu überschätzen.
Grethe Güthe

Hannoverscher Anzeiger. Sept. 1921.
Modenschau in der Galerie von Garvens, veranstaltet vom Verein für Frauenkultur. Einen stilvolleren Rahmen als die Räume der Galerie von Garvens hätten die Veranstalter dieser Modevorführung nicht wählen können. Die individuelle, künstlerische Note, die jedes Kleid trug, kam hier zur vollen Auswirkung. Man genoß die Vorführung wie eine kleine Feierstunde über einem guten Buch, aus dem man etwas Schönes mit hineinnimmt in den Alltag. Einschmeichelnde Musik, stimmungsvoll sich jedem Kleide anpassend, begleitete die Vorführungen.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Nov. 1921.
Kubin schreibt an den Besitzer der Galerie (ungefähr): “Es ist erstaunlich, daß Sie es fertig gebracht haben, eine Kubin-Ausstellung aus dem Boden zu stampfen, eine Ausstellung, die mein ganzes Schaffen umfaßt und mit seltener Deutlichkeit erkennen läßt.” Diese auf Zusendung des Katalogs hingeschriebenen Worte des Künstlers dürften schon einiges Recht der Beachtung bei einer Würdigung dieser Ausstellung beanspruchen. Denn ist dem Wort, daß der Künstler bilden und nicht reden rolle, an sich wohl zuzustimmen, so ist die Frage hier doch eine, zu der er etwas zu sagen hat. Wenn er zufrieden ist, sollten wir es auch sein. Wir können es. Auch diese Ausstellung ist wieder ein Verdienst der auf dem steinigen Boden Hannovers mit gewohnter Hartnäckigkeit noch immer verkannten – und was schlimmer ist – kaum bekannten Galerie. — — — — — —
V. C. Habicht.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Dez. 1921.
Kurt Schwitters. Berichterstattung wäre hier Mißbrauch der Pressefreiheit. In der Georgstraße stößt man jetzt zuweilen auf einen Kasten, der kein Leierkasten, sondern eine Kiste mit aufrecht-stehenden Stricknadeln ist, die durch ein Zahnrad zu Geräusch veranlaßt werden. Von der ästhetischen Kritik und öffentlichen Erörterung auch dieser Veranstaltung wird gemeinhin abgesehen. Ebenso pflegt selbst der Menschenfreund nur Minuten auf solche Veranstaltungen zu verwenden, in dem unseres Erachtens berechtigten Drang, seinen Weg in seiner eigenen Richtung zunächst fortzusetzen (Serz). Dieser Meinung war die Mehrzahl der Teilnehmer an der letzten Veranstaltung der Galerie Garvens nicht, die es im Gegenteil vorzog, durch schweigende Duldung Herrn Schwitters den Beweis zu liefern, daß seine Auffassung von der Konjunktur für Snobismus die richtige ist.

Die Pille. 1921. Heft 49/50.
Offener Brief an Herrn Brauweiler. 13. 12. 21. Sehr geehrter Herr Brauweiler! Es ist nicht wahr, daß das Publikum meinen Vortrag schweigend geduldet habe, wie Sie in Ihrer Kritik vom 8. 12. im Hannoverschen Kurier behaupten. Mißbrauch der Pressefreiheit ist nicht, wie Sie meinen, über meinen Vortrag Bericht zu erstatten, sondern ich nenne es Mißbrauch der Pressefreiheit, wenn Sie mit Ihrer aus der Luft gegriffenen Behauptung, daß mein Publikum schweigend geduldet habe, Ihre Leser irre zu führen. Am Schlusse meines Vortrages ergab es sich im Gegenteil, daß das Publikum sehr interessiert war und sein Interesse durch freundlichen Beifall kundgab. Es hatte nicht den Anschein, als ob viele verständnislose Zuhörer dagewesen wären. Sie selbst, Herr Brauweiler, hatten allerdings meinen Vortrag schon zehn Minuten nach Beginn ostentativ verlassen und konnten deshalb über die Haltung des Publikums überhaupt nicht urteilen. Abgesehen davon bitte ich Sie um sachliche Kritik, statt Ihres witzigen Vergleiches mit dem Leierkasten und ich behaupte, daß Sie keine stichhaltigen Gründe gegen meine Dichtungen oder gegen meinen Vortrag vorbringen können. Persönliche Abneigung ist kein Grund. Mich würden Ihre Gründe interessieren. Hochachtungsvoll Kurt Schwitters.
Die Aufnahme meiner Entgegnung wurde abgelehnt mit der Begründung, daß sie “unsachlich” sei. Das Publikum wird sein Urteil fällen.
Kurt Schwitters
Lieber Schwitters! Dieweil ich Deine Antwort an den “Kurier” drucke, erübrigt sich meine Besprechung Deines Vortragsabend. Ich müßte sonst wiederholen, daß der Reporter des Kuriers ein Esel ist, und das wäre doch langweilig.

Hannoverscher Kurier. Jan. 1922.
In der Galerie Garvens las Hugo Hertwig Szenen eigenen Fabrikats. Er war angezogen wie ein Theaterbösewicht vom 9. November 1918 und berauschte sich am Schwung seiner eigenen Verse wie ein Liebhaber am ersten Liebesgedicht. Der Inhalt seiner Poesien ist eigentlich schwer zu bezeichnen. War es eine politische Dichtung oder eine dichterische Politik? Jedenfalls war es eine Art vom nihilistischem Manifest. In oft sehr packende Rhythmen gebracht und in rauschende Töne gekleidet. “Es lebe der internationale Massenmord!” erklang es mehrmals; erst wenn alle jetzt lebenden Menschen vertilgt sein werden (ob der Dichter auch, verrät er uns nicht), wird ein neues Geschlecht kommen (ob aus der Erde, wie die Frühlingsblumen?), und das werde dann die Erfüllung bringen. Darum soll mit Dynamit, Bomben und allen Schreckmitteln gearbeitet werden; alles soll sterben, um Platz für die kommende Generation zu machen. Nur um einen einzigen, der dabei umkäme, wäre es schade: das ist der Prophet Hertwig . . .

Volkswille. April 1922.
Zur Grosz-Ausstellung in der Galerie Garvens zu Hannover.
Als vor etwa zweihundert Jahren in England die zunehmende Erschließung und Ausbeutung überseeischer Kolonien gewaltige Reichtümer häufte, da kam mit dem Mammon auch das Wohlleben, und an das Wohlleben hing sich das Laster. Zu jener Zeit lebte unter den Briten ein Künstler mit hellen Augen und scharfem Geiste, William Hogarth, der es mit unbekümmertem Freimut wagte, die Sünden seiner englischen Zeitgenoffen ungeschminkt und wahrheitsgetreu auf die Leinwand zu malen. So wurde er der größte englische Sittenschilderer des 18. Jahrhunderts, und während die dickbändigen Werke über die Lebensführung seiner Zeit längst vermodert und vergessen sind, bilden Hogarths berühmte Bilder “Der Weg des Liederlichen”, “Mariage à la mode”, “Der Morgen” und so weiter noch heute für die Nachlebenden den eindrucksvollsten Sittenspiegel jener verflossenen Tage.
Ein solcher Sittenschilderer seiner Zeit, ein deutscher Hogarth, treibt seit Jahren sein Wesen und Werk unter uns. George Grosz, dessen Arbeiten in Hannover zum erstenmal in ihrer Gesamtheit durch die Galerie Garvens gezeigt werden. Groß und gut ist das Ziel, das sich der Meister gesetzt hat: “Ich will den Unterdrückten die wahren Gesichter ihrer Herren zeigen.” Mit verblüffender Beherrschung des Handwerklichen, mit unheimlicher Schärfe und mit grausamer Offenheit feuert er auf fein Ziel los.
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Hannoversche Zeitung. Mai 1922.
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Der zweite Kunst-Salon unterer Stadt, die Galerie von Garvens, veranstaltet gleichzeitig eine zweite Nolde-Ausstellung. Was bei keinem anderen Künstler erträglich wäre, dieses gleichzeitige Auftreten an zwei verschiedenen Plätzen, dieses Überangebot einer einzigen und einseitigen Kunst, bei Nolde allein freut man sich über dies Zusammentreffen. Es kommt hinzu, daß beide Ausstellungen durchaus nicht als Konkurrenz-Unternehmungen aufzufassen sind, beide ergänzen sich im Gegenteil auf das Angenehmste. Dort in der Kestner-Gesellschaft, eine kühle, fachliche, fast wissenschaftliche Ausstellung, hier in der Jägerstraße ein höchst raffiniertes, bizarres Beieinandersein von Noldescher Kunst, exotischen Skulpturen und Kakteen. Hannover kann stolz auf seine beiden Kunstsalons sein!
Dr. F. Wedekind.

Niederdeutsche Zeitung. Juli 1922.
Lassen wir es! Streiten wir uns nicht! Es haben sich schon zu viele gestritten, als daß wir hoffen dürften, es zu Ende zu bringen. Die meisten Kunstkenner wissen nicht viel damit anzufangen, – also haben die wenig andern das schöne Vorrecht, sich für die klügere Minderheit zu erklären. Hier und da dreht selbst ein Meister wie Picasso langsam ab und steigt in wohltuenden Kurven herab, daß er wieder “unsersgleichen werde, mitzufühlen Freud’ und Qual.” Trotzdem aber schimpfen die wenigen unentwegt weiter herab auf die “profanen Laien”, und die Laien lächeln höhnisch hinauf zu den „verstiegenen Genies”. – Lassen wir es also! Streiten wir uns nicht!
— — — — — —
Willi Baumeister, der hier ausstellt, sucht eine vereinfachte Form innerhalb des Kubismus. Seine Bilder sollen in architektonische Komplexe eingefügt gedacht fein. Gewiß hat der Kubismus – wie ein Buch von Adolf Behne zeigt – für die Architektur viel Bedeutung. Mehr Bedeutung als für die Bildmalerei. Es kann sein, daß manches, was aus diesen Bildern nur verworren und im Halbschlaf spricht – Farbentöne von zartem Reiz, Raumgewalt und Linienmelodie – im ausgebaut Steingefüge klar und imponierend redet. Darum werde Baumeister, ehe die Kritik Endgültiges wagt, – Baumeister.
Dr. H. A. Thies.

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100 Years of Bauhaus – The First Retrospective in 1930

Artists / Curators / Exhibition History / History / Research
Havard Society for contemporary Art - Bauhaus 1930

Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau – Retrospective exhibition at ‘The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art’, early December 1930 – January 13, 1931

100 Years of Bauhaus ‐ The First Retrospective in 1930

The centenary of the founding of the Bauhaus initiated many exhibitions, surveys, research projects and conferences not only in Europe but worldwide to review the original Bauhaus years in Weimar 1919-1924, and Dessau 1925-1931 and the echoes of these years up to the present.
All the centenary activities provide new and important insight. However, the Bauhaus was not an island nor is it thinkable without taking into account all the other important developments in the arts during the first three decades of the 20th century. See overview below.
Looking back may easily result in the conclusion that things had to happen as they happened. As always, nobody knows what the future will be and although the vision about the Bauhaus mission was an important compass, its history was not carved out of stone beforehand.

Bauhaus Building by Walter Gropius, built in 1925–26. UNESCO World Heritage. © Mewes, 2003, Wikimedia Commons

In 1923, the first Bauhaus exhibition took place in Weimar. The ‘Bauhauswoche’ (15.-19.08.1923) undertook the important task to promote the Bauhaus itself and to show the results of the artist’s work. Seven years later, the ’20e Salon des artistes décorateurs français’ (14.05.-13.07.1930), took place at the Grand Palais in Paris, one if not the capital of the arts since centuries. The ‘Section allemande’, which was directed by the ‘Deutscher Werkbund’, was organized by Walter Gropius (with contributions by László Moholy-Nagy, Marcel Breuer, and Herbert Bayer) in an own, remarkable environment. 1  It was the most important and at the same time last show during the lifetime of the Bauhaus, spanning from home furnishing items to city planning.
In a sharp contrast to Paris, at home in Dessau the dismissal of Hannes Meyer (1889-1954) on 01.08.1930, who followed Walter Gropius as director in 1928, provoked a historical caesura.
Although Mies van der Rohe became new director of the Bauhaus in Dessau, with the dismissal of Meyer in August 1930 the future and mission of the Bauhaus suddenly became unclear. It survived another three years until its closure in Berlin in 1933.

The First Bauhaus Retrospective in December 1930

Despite this tragedy, for some the Bauhaus had already found its place in history of art and its role in modern life. It seemed to be a sound and reasonable way out of the tumult of the past two decades.
The first Bauhaus retrospective in December 1930 in Cambridge (MA) was organized to defend the historical role, and its essential meaning for future development. It took place from early December 1930 until January 13, 1931 at the Blog post Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, entitled ‘Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau’.2
The exhibition traveled after Cambridge to the John Becker Gallery, New York (20.01.-10.02.1931), thereafter to The Arts Club of Chicago , then entitled ‘Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany’, (13.-28.03.1931).

The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art

The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – HSfCA, was an avant-garde art gallery run by three students, from 1929-1932: Lincoln Kirstein (1907–1996), John Walker III (1906–1995), and Edward M. M. Warburg (1908–1992). It possibly was the most important student’s gallery of all time as its exhibition program found its succession in the exhibitions of the first decades of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1932, Lincoln Kirstein moved to New York. He had become member of MoMA’s Advisory Committee and Chairman of the Exhibition Committee.
To develop the exhibition program of the HSfCA the three students could rely on the many connections they had. They knew scholars, art collectors and art galleries, as well as other institutions, including the important Wadsworth Atheneum at Hartford and A. Everett ‘Chick’ Austin, its new, talented director since October 1927 3 .
Our blog post Blog post The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932) gives you an overview of HSfCA’s exciting exhibition timeline and the shown artists.

‘Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau’ at the HSfCA in December 1930

So far the exhibition ’82 | The Bauhaus 1919–1928′, at the MoMA (07.12.1938-30.01.1939) with Herbert Bayer as curator is labeled as the first retrospective. 4  There are many reasons to call the HSfCA exhibition end of 1930 not an ordinary exhibition but a retrospective, therefore the first Bauhaus retrospective.
In its Bauhaus exhibition, the HSfCA did show 25 artists. In New York in 1938, the MoMA retrospective did show 63 artists. Present in both shows were 12 artists: Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Mies van der Rohe, Theo van Doesburg, Lyonel Feininger, Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten, Paul Klee, László Moholy-Nagy, Heinz Nösselt, Oskar Schlemmer, and Gunta Stölzl. See our table below comparing both artist lists.
For the shown items and art works, Lincoln Kirstein contacted collectors, art galleries, scholars, and Alfred H. Barr (1902-1981). The other important lenders are listed below. Asking for original material in Dessau and shipping it to Cambridge would have been out of scope regarding the gallery’s budget and time schedule.
For the Bauhaus Retrospective at the MoMA in December 1938 the Notes of the Press Release dated 02.12.1938 explain: “Under existing conditions in Germany it was not possible to bring more actual objects to this country for the exhibition. Limited to objects which were available, supplemented by enlarged photographs, the exhibition does not show the entire scope of the Bauhaus in every field of its work.
Although most of the objects and designs shown were made more than a decade ago, they were based on such sound principles of beauty and usefulness that even today many of them seem well above the level or ordinary contemporary design.
However, the principal theme of the exhibition is the Bauhaus as an idea. That idea seems as valid today as it was in the days when the Bauhaus flourished.”
Apparently, Kirstein did not want to wait end of 1930 and opened his Bauhaus exhibition immediately after his ‘Photography 1930’ exhibition (07.-29.11.1930), his American answer to Film und Foto in Stuttgart 1929. ‘Photography 1930’ traveled in December 1930 to A. Everett Austin’s Wadsworth Atheneum. 10 of his 21 shown artists were part of the exhibition in Stuttgart 5 .
To find out more about photography in the 20s and 30s read our blog post Blog post ‘The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach and Thomas Walther Collection – Avant-Garde Photography in the 1920s & 1930s’.

Following the Introduction of the exhibition catalogue, Lincoln Kirstein knew about the dismissal of Hannes Meyer. All of a sudden, the future of the Bauhaus was uncertain.
Alfred H. Barr, already since a year founding director of the Museum of Modern Art, may have seen the dismissal of Meyer as an important moment in time to make at least the American public and art world aware of the importance of the Bauhaus. He had visited Dessau in 1927, and supported and helped organizing the HSfCA Bauhaus exhibition in December 1930. During the past years, he had developed a distinctive view about the international movements in art since 1900. He was teaching at the Wellesley College from 1924-1926, providing art courses like ‘Tradition and Revolt in Modern Painting’ (1926), and was well aware of the new responsibilities art schools were facing, regarding the tectonic shifts in the arts and the failure of the traditional academies.

Cubism and Abstract Art-Flowchart 1936

Evidently, the Bauhaus was so important to Alfred H. Barr that it became part of his famous flowchart about movements in modern art. He published it on the dust jacket of his ’46 | Cubism and Abstract Art’ exhibition catalogue at the MoMA in March 1936. The Bauhaus holds in this flowchart a unique position: It represents a stylistic reference along all the other isms and it is the only educational concept and school in his flow chart.

Kirstein refers in the exhibition catalogue’s Introduction as well to the important role of Henry van de Velde for the new educational structure of the Bauhaus. Van de Velde was in charge of the ‘Kunstgewerbliche Seminar’ in 1902, later ‘Kunstgewerbliches Institut’, Weimar, until its closure in 1915 because of WWI. “He has always insisted that the ideas of the Bauhaus were his ideas.” 6
After WWI, the ‘Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar’ was founded in April 1919 by merging the ‘Großherzoglich-Sächsischen Hochschule für Bildende Kunst’, Weimar and the ‘Kunstgewerbeschule’, Weimar. Van de Velde recommended Walter Gropius as its director. Lincoln Kirstein mentions as well Constructivism, “… being the dogma of what was believed to be a new style in architecture. … It really evolved from Cubism, treating an interior, for example, as a tri-dimensional canvas. Painting at the Bauhaus was now practically forbidden. It was considered as bourgeois and capitalistic. All the emphasis was focused on the necessary, the functional; panel painting did not exist for the Bauhaus. The theorist Kandinsky started to invent not pictures but whole rooms.” 7

End of the 20s ‘Modernism’ had become a topic including many sub and side currents. Again, looking back some years and trying to imagine the period’s challenges provides more insight. First, the ‘Sonderbund Ausstellung’ in Cologne in 1912, then, under the influence of the ‘Sonderbund Ausstellung’, the famous Armory Show in 1913, the ‘International Exhibition of Modern Art’ (17.02.-15.03.1913) organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, plaid a key role, being the death warrant of the National Academy of Design, New York. As the new currents in the arts were more visible in Europe, Alfred H. Barr may have felt that there is an important void, which needs to be filled, to help the arts in the United States finding their directions on an international roadmap.

There are other shows which should be mentioned, and which have most certainly been discussed in all art circles. Please see as well our list below. Among them is the most important ‘Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922’ (October – December 1922). To see there Naum Gabo, Karlis Joganson, Konstantin Medunetsky, Aleksander Rodchenko, Vladimir Tatlin, and other Constructivists must have been striking. 8
Three years later the ‘Neue Sachlichkeit – Deutsche Malerei seit dem Expressionismus’ exhibition at the Kunsthalle Mannheim (14.06.-13.09.1925), organized by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub. Blog post See our blog post on Franz Roh and ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’. The genesis of this exhibition, the exchange between Franz Roh and Gustav Hartlaub, starts some years earlier. Although Russian avant-garde art was of great importance and influence, Italian art was influential, too. Visible for everybody in ’43 | Das junge Italien’‘, Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover, 22.05.-19.06.1921; organized by Mario Broglio (1891-1948). The exhibition with eight artists was shown before in Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie, and later in Hamburg.
Furthermore, the ‘Internationale Kunstausstellung Dresden 1926’, June-September 1926, was an important meeting place for the art world.
The ‘An International Exhibition of Modern Art Assembled by the Société Anonyme’, at the Brooklyn Museum of Art, November 1926 – January 1927, shows the awareness and new visions in Europe and America and as well, the different point of views in the mid-20s in New York. Katherine S. Dreier (1877–1952), co-founder of the Société Anonyme and since 1916 friend with Marcel Duchamp, who did show his famous Fountain in April 1917 at Alfred Stieglitz’ 291 gallery, was not among the lenders of the Bauhaus exhibition at the HSfCA.
The influential Alfred Stieglitz took part in the inaugural exhibition of the HSfCA, ‘An Exhibition of American Art’ (19.02.-15.03.1929), and in the already mentioned ‘Photography 1930’ exhibition at the HSfCA (07.-29.11.1930).

The Exhibition Catalogue of ‘Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau’

The two and a half page Introduction of the exhibition catalogue is attributed to Lincoln Kirstein. The full text can be found on this artist-info exhibition subpage.
At the end of the text, he adds: “The information in this catalogue was supplied through the courtesy of Mr. Alfred V. Churchill, Mr. Phillip Johnson [Philip Johnson], and of Helmuth von Erfa [Helmut von Erffa], once a pupil of the Bauhaus at Weimar.”
Alfred V. Churchill – see below ‘Lenders’
Philip Johnson – see below ‘Lenders’
Helmut von Erffa (1900-1979), came to the United States in 1923. Von Erffa graduated from Harvard in 1931 and received a master’s degree in 1933. He obtained a Master of Fine Arts degree from Princeton University in 1935. Joined Rutgers as an assistant professor of art in 1946, chairman of the Rutgers University art department until 1964.

Sections of the HSfCA exhibition in the exhibition Catalogue

Artists mentioned in the catalogue (including the shown art work)
Paintings and Drawings (Color Prints, Drawings, Etchings, Color Lithographs, Lithographs, Oils, Watercolors, Woodcuts): Borchert, L. Feininger, Itten, Kandinsky, Klee, Marcks, Schlemmer, Schreyer.
Portfolio of Russian and Italian artists.
Typography: Bayer.
Decorative Arts and Photographs of Decorative Arts: Classen, Brandt, Nösselt, Stölzl.
Photographs: Th. L. Feininger, and Photographs of the Bauhaus Buildings.
Photographs of Paintings by Albers, L. Feininger, Muche, Bayer, Klee, Kandinsky.
Books and Periodicals: Bayer, Clauss, Doesburg, Gleizes, Gropius, Kandinsky, Klee, Moholy-Nagy, Malevich, Mondrian, Oud, Schlemmer.


The list of lenders and the short notices show the scope and high quality the HSfCA envisioned for its Bauhaus exhibition.
Jere Abbott, art historian (1897–1982). Fellow student of Alfred H. Barr. After helping to establish a department of fine arts at Wesleyan University in 1929, he helped establishing the MoMA in New York. He became the associate director of the museum at the time of its founding in 1929 and retained that position until 1932.
Mohammed Agha [Mehemed Fehmy Agha] (1896-1978), art director for Vogue, Vanity Fair, and House & Garden (Poster and Catalog of the Paris Werkbund Exhibition 1930)
Alfred H. Barr (1902-1981), founding director of the Museum of Modern Art, New York (contributed Bauhaus material, that he collected in 1927 on his trip through Europe and Russia)
John Becker Gallery, New York
Alfred Vance Churchill, American painter (1864-1949). A noted art critic, lecturer as well as a teacher and painter (whose work appeared in the Armory Show in Chicago in 1913), he influenced the standards of art teaching, especially as vice-president of the College Art Association.
The Detroit Institute of Arts, The DIA collection is regarded as among the top six museums in the United States with an encyclopedic collection, which spans the globe from ancient Egyptian and European works to contemporary art.
Phillip Johnson [Philip Johnson], American architect (1906-2005). In 1928, he met German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who was designing at the time the German Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. In 1930, Johnson joined the architecture department of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. There he arranged for American visits by Gropius and Le Corbusier, and negotiated the first American commission for Mies van der Rohe. In 1932, working with Hitchcock and Alfred H. Barr, Jr., he organized the first exhibition on Modern architecture at the Museum of Modern Art.
15 | Modern Architecture – International Exhibition (1/2)
15 | Modern Architecture – International Exhibition (2/2)
J. B. Neumann Gallery, New York [Jsrael Ber Neumann (1887-1961)], J. B. Neumann (1887–1961) opened his first gallery in Berlin in 1911, exhibiting works by Edvard Munch and members of Die Brücke. In 1915-16, he was secretary to the Berlin Secession. From 1921 to 1927, he had an exclusive contract with Max Beckmann. Neumann moved to New York in 1923, leaving the Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin to Karl Nierendorf and the Munich gallery to Günther Franke. Directed New Art Circle. Published periodical Artlover.
Dr. Wilhelm Reinhold Valentiner (1880–1958) German art historian, art critic and museum official. In 1905, he was called to Berlin by Wilhelm von Bode (1845-1929), under whom he worked at the ‘Kaiser Friedrich Museum’ and the ‘Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin’. In 1906, he published his dissertation on Rembrandt that he started in 1904: ‘Rembrandt auf der Lateinschule’. In 1907, he was appointed the first curator of the department of decorative arts in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, which under his supervision became one of the foremost in the world. From 1924-1945, he was appointed first advisor and then Director of the Detroit Museum of Art, which later became The Detroit Institute of Arts. Under his leadership, the museum developed into one of the leading art institutions in the country.
E. Weyhe Gallery, New York [Erhard Weyhe (1882-1971)], came to the United States in 1914. Important art books dealer and publisher.

The Artists shown in the HSfCA 1930 and the MoMA 1938 Bauhaus Retrospective

Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau
Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, 12.1930 - 13.01.1931
[Dr] Entartete Kunst, Dresden 1933
[Mü] Entartete Kunst, München 1937
(Exh.)82 | The Bauhaus 1919-1928
Museum of Modern Art, 07.12.1938 - 30.01.1939

[12 artists shown in both exhibitions]
1Albers, Josef (1888 - 1976) (376)1Albers, Josef (1888 - 1976)(376)
2Bayer, Herbert (1900 - 1985)(128)2Ardon, Mordecai (1896 - 1992)(15)
3Borchert, Erich (1907 - 1944)(5)3Arndt, Gertrud (1903 - 2000)(11)
4Brandt, Marianne (1893 - 1983)(28)4Bayer, Herbert (1900 - 1985) [Mü](128)
5Classen(3)5Bogler, Theodor (1897 - 1968)(8)
6Clauss, Alfred (1906 - 1998)(3)6Brandt, Marianne (1893 - 1983)(28)
7Doesburg, Theo van (1883 - 1931)(118)7Bredendieck, Hin (1904 - 1995)(6)
8Feininger, Lyonel (1871 - 1956)(318)8Breuer, Marcel (1902 - 1981)(37)
9Feininger, Theodor Lux (1910 - 2011) [Dr] [Mü](41)9Citroën-Vallentin, Ruth (1906 - 2002)(1)
10Gleizes, Albert Léon (1881 - 1953)(150)10Consemüller-Hollôs, Ruth (1904 - 1993)(2)
11Gropius, Walter (1883 - 1969)(39)11Dieckmann, Erich (1896 - 1944)(3)
12Itten, Johannes (1888 - 1967) [Mü](98)12Doesburg, Theo van (1883 - 1931)(118)
13Kandinsky, Wassily (1866 - 1944) [Dr] [Mü](628)13Erps-Breuer, Martha (1902 - 1977)(2)
14Klee, Paul (1879 - 1940) [Dr] [Mü](644)14Feininger, Lyonel (1871 - 1956) [Dr] [Mü](318)
15Malevich, Kazimir (1879 - 1935)(268)15Feist, Werner David (1909 - 1998)(17)
16Marcks, Gerhard (1889 - 1981) [Dr] [Mü](156)16Fischer, Margrit(1)
17FMies van der Rohe, Ludwig (1886 - 1969)(66)17Forbát, Alfréd [Fred] (1897 - 1972)(12)
18Mondrian, Piet (1872 - 1944) [Mü](288)18Gropius, Walter (1883 - 1969)(39)
19Muche, Georg (1895 - 1987) [Mü](74)19Gropius & Meyer, [Walter Gropius 1883-1969 & Adolf Meyer 1881-1929](3)
20Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946) [Mü](390)20Grosz, George (1893 - 1959) [Dr] [Mü](305)
21Nösselt, Heinz (1900 - 1950)(5)21Grote, Thoma (1896 - 1977)(2)
22Oud, J. J. P. (1890 - 1963)(13)22Hartwig, Josef (1880 - 1956)(10)
23Schlemmer, Oskar (1888 - 1943) [Mü](209)23Hassenpflug, Gustav (1907 - 1977)(5)
24Schreyer, Lothar (1886 - 1966) [Mü](34)24Hirschfeld-Mack, Ludwig (1893 - 1965)(13)
25Stölzl, Gunta (1897 - 1983)(18)25Hoffmann, Hubert (1904 - 1999)(6)
26Itten, Johannes (1888 - 1967) [Mü](98)
27Jucker, Carl Jacob (1902 - 1997)(3)
28Keler, Peter (1898 - 1982)(7)
29Kerkovius, Ida (1879 - 1970) [Mü](76)
30Klee, Paul (1879 - 1940) [Dr] [Mü](644)
31Knau, Josef (1897 - 1945)(2)
32Koch-Otte, Benita (1892 - 1976)(3)
33Krajewsky, Max (1892 - 1972)(6)
34Lang, Lothar (1907 - 1974)(3)
35Leudesdorff-Engstfeld, Lore (1902 - 1986)(4)
36Lindig, Otto (1895 - 1966)(9)
37Marx, Gerda(1)
38Menzel, W.(1)
39Meyer, Hannes (1889 - 1954)(14)
40Molnár, Farkas Ferenc (1895 - 1945)(13)
41Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946) [Mü](390)
42Mögelin, Else (1887 - 1982)(4)
43Neumann, Klaus(1)
44Nösselt, Heinz (1900 - 1950)(5)
45Pap, Gyula (1899 - 1983)(9)
46Paris, Rudolf (1896 - 1973)(2)
47Rasch, Maria (1897 - 1959)(2)
48Rittweger & Tümpel, [Otto Rittweger 1904-1965 & Wolfgang Tümpel 1903-1978](1)
49Schawinsky, Xanti (1904 - 1979)(28)
50Schlemmer, Oskar (1888 - 1943) [Mü](209)
51Schmidt, Kurt (1901 - 1991)(11)
52Schwerdtfeger, Kurt (1897 - 1966)(18)
53Siedhoff-Buscher, Alma (1899 - 1944)(3)
54Slutzky, Naum (1894 - 1965)(7)
55Soupault, Ré (1901 - 1996)(6)
56Stölzl, Gunta (1897 - 1983)(16)
57Sörensen-Popitz, Irmgard (1896 - 1993)(2)
58Tolziner, Philipp (1906 - 1996)(2)
59Victoria, Charlotte(2)
60Wagenfeld & Jucker, [Wilhelm Wagenfeld & Carl Jakob Jucker](3)
61Wassilieff, Nicolai (1901 - 1977)(5)
62Wittwer, Hans (1894 - 1952)(4)
63Zimmermann, Werner (1906 - 1975)(4)
Source: artist-info
About documenting exhibitions 1880 to present see"

Bauhaus Timeline and Important Exhibitions and Events 1900-1938

YearBauhausOther Venues
1902'Kunstgewerbliches Seminar', director Henry van de Velde (1863-1957)
1907'Kunstgewerbliches Institut'
Henry van der Velde, director of the 'Großherzoglich Sächsische Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar', commissioned by Großherzog Wilhelm Ernst to take care of the design of products of arts and crafts workshops and industry in the country. His design was adopted successfully. His task was similar to the one the Bauhaus has in 1919.
1912'Internationale Kunstausstellung des Sonderbundes westdeutscher Kunstfreunde und Künstler 1912'; Köln, 05.-09.1912
1913'International Exhibition of Modern Art';
organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors, 17.02. - 15.03.1913; 300.000 visitors including Chicago, and Boston.
1914World War I
28.07.1914 – 11.11.1918
1915The 'Kunstgewerbliches Institut' was closed in 1915 due to WWI.
Van de Velde left Germany in 1917 for Switzerland. His family followed him in November 1918.
1919The 'Staatliche Bauhaus in Weimar' was founded April 12, 1919 by merging the 'Großherzoglich-Sächsischen Hochschule für Bildende Kunst', Weimar and the 1915 closed 'Kunstgewerbeschule Weimar'. Van de Velde proposes Walter Gropius (1883-1969) as his successor, who labeled the new school.
1921‘43 | Das junge Italien', Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover, 22.05. - 19.06.1921; organized by Mario Broglio (1891-1948), in Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie, and later in Hamburg.

‘Zehn Jahre Sturm', Galerie der Sturm, Berlin, 09.1921 (Herwarth Walden)
1922'Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922'; Berlin, 10.-12.1922
See as well our blog post for more details Blog post Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists)
1923In 1923, a conflict with Walter Gropius who favored a focus on mass production rather than individual artistic work led to Itten's resignation from the Bauhaus. He was replaced by László Moholy-Nagy.Exhibition of Russian Painting and Sculpture, Brooklyn Museum (NY), 24.02. - 06.04.1923
‘Russian Painting and Sculpture (1/2) Paintings and Drawings'
‘Russian Painting and Sculpture (2/2) Sculpture'
1924In the years following World War I, Germany started to turn around. The economy began to recover after the 1924 Dawes Plan.
1925After the parliament election in Thuringia in February 1924, the budget of the Bauhaus was cut by 50%.
The masters of the Bauhaus decide in 1925 to move with the Bauhaus to Dessau. Gropius could assure the name rights for the Bauhaus in Dessau. Weimar could not use the name Bauhaus anymore.
‘Neue Sachlichkeit – Deutsche Malerei seit dem Expressionismus', Kunsthalle Mannheim, 14.06. - 13.09.1925; Curator Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub (1884 - 1963)

Franz Roh publishes his book 'Nachexpressionismus. Magischer Realismus. Probleme der neuesten europäischen Malerei’, automn 1925.

See for more details our blog post Blog post 'Neue Sachlichkeit – Franz Roh, Exhibitions and their Artists, from 1921 up to the present')
1926‘Die neue Sachlichkeit', Kunstverein Jena, 16.05.-13.06.1926; Curator Walter Dexel

Internationale Kunstausstellung Dresden 1926, Juni-September 1926

‘An International Exhibition of Modern Art Assembled by the Société Anonyme', Brooklyn Museum of Art, 11.1926 - 01.1927
1927‘Die neue Sachlichkeit', Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin, 03.-04.1927

‘Neue Reklame', Jenaer Kunstverein, 05.-06.1927
1928On April 1, 1928, Walter Gropius resigns as director of the Bauhaus.
Following his proposal the Suisse architect Meyer, Hannes [Hans Emil] (1889 - 1954) became new director.
Walter Gropius leaves Germany in 1934. He arrives in February 1937 in USA.
Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer teach at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (1937–1952)
‘Neue Wege der Photographie', Jenaer Kunstverein, 03. - 05.1928
1929‘Fotografie der Gegenwart', Folkwang Museum, Essen, in 01.–02.1929;
travels in 1929 to Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover; Whitechapel Gallery, London; Kunstverein Frankfurt a.M.

Tentoonstelling van de Onafhankelijken, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 11.05.-10.06.1929
‘Tentoonstelling van de Onafhankelijken (1/2) – Inzending Duitsche ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’, (Berlin, Breslau, Dresden, Hannover, Karlsruhe, Köln, Oldenburg, Paris)'
‘Tentoonstelling van de Onafhankelijken (2/2) – Vereeniging van Beeldende Kunstnaars Amsterdam'

'Film und Foto', International Exhibition, organized by the Deutscher Werkbund in Stuttgart in 05.1929

‘Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye', influential Book by Franz Roh and Jan Tschichold, 05.1929

‘1 | Cézanne Gauguin Seurat Van Gogh', MoMA opening exhibition, curator Alfred H. Barr; 07.11.-07.12.1929, 47.000 visitors.
Wall Street Crash of 1929, Black Tuesday, October 1929
1930Oskar Schlemmer and Paul Klee are leaving the Bauhaus. The Bauhaus has fallen into disrepute and the city of Dessau dismissed Hannes Meyer for his communist ideas on 01.08.1930 without notice.

End of 1930 the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) became director of the Bauhaus in Dessau.
He designed the German Pavilion for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition, together with Lilly Reich.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe & Lilly Reich
'20e Salon des artistes décorateurs français', Paris, 'Section allemande' by the Deutscher Werkbund, responsible is Walter Gropius (with support by László Moholy-Nagy, Marcel Breuer, Herbert Bayer), 14.05.-13.07.1930

Modern German Art, Wadsworth Atheneum, 05.1930 - 06.1930
‘Painting', ‘Sculpture', ‘Prints'

‘Das Lichtbild', München, 06.-09.1930

‘Photography 1930', Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Cambridge (MA), 07.-29.11.1930
'Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau', Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Cambridge (MA), December 1930 - 14.01.1931
1931In 1931, the NSDAP won the municipal election in Dessau and closed 1932 the Bauhaus. The KPD voted against, the SPD abstained from voting.
In 1932, the Bauhaus moved to Berlin and was closed in 1933.
'Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau', John Becker Gallery, New York, 20.01.-10.02.1931
'Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany', The Arts Club of Chicago, 13.-28.03.1931

‘Retrospective Exhibition of Landscape Painting', Wadsworth Atheneum, 01.-02.1931

‘11 | German Painting and Sculpture', MoMA, 03. -04.1931
193215 | Modern Architecture - International Exhibition, MoMA 02.-03.1932, curator Philip Johnson
‘Photographs Illustrating the Extent of Modern Architecture'
‘Models, Photographs of work'
1933Entartete Kunst, City Hall Dresden 23.09.1933. Traveling exhibition.
1934Machine Art, MoMA, 05.03. –29.04.1934
1935‘Impressionism to Abstraction, 13 Women Painters', Wadsworth Atheneum, 12.1934-01.1935

‘Abstract Art', Wadsworth Atheneum, 10. - 11.1935
1936'46 | Cubism and Abstract Art', MoMA, 02.03.-09.04.1936

‘Abstract Painting', Wadsworth Atheneum, 12.1936
1937Entartete Kunst, München, Hofgarten, 07.-11.1937

‘55 | Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism', MoMA 07.12.1936-17.01.1937
1938'82 | The Bauhaus 1919–1928', MoMA, 07.12.1938-30.01.1939, curator Herbert Bayer (1900-1985)
1939World War II
01.09.1939 – 02.03.1945

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Neue Sachlichkeit – Franz Roh, Exhibitions and their Artists

Artists / Exhibition History / History / Research
F.W. Seiwert, Four Men in front of Factories 1926 (section)

Franz Wilhelm Seiwert, ‘Four Men in Front of Factories’, 1926 (section), © public domain

Neue Sachlichkeit – Franz Roh, Exhibitions and their Artists, from 1921 up to the present

   Comparing the exhibitions and the shown artists related to ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ is subject of this survey.
Who are the artists whose work is shown in exhibitions entitled ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ or ‘Magic Realism’ in the 20s and exhibitions that are more recent?

   ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ is an important issue when you are looking at painting of the 20s and 30s. Although he was the first to use this term in 1921, Franz Roh (1890-1965), the photography artist and art critic (his influential book ‘Foto-Auge’ is part of our survey Blog post The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and Thomas Walther Collection), continued to call the new currents ‘Nachexpressionistische Kunst’. It was Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub who entitled his exhibition at the Kunsthalle Mannheim in June 1925: ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ – Deutsche Malerei seit dem Expressionismus. He was the first to give this term public awareness and ongoing attention.
   Franz Roh did not succeed in organizing an exhibition on ‘Nachexpressionismus’ himself. He instead published his thoughts and insight into painting of the 20s in his book ‘Nachexpressionismus. Magischer Realismus. Probleme der neuesten europäischen Malerei’, dated in the foreword Frauenkirch near Davos, March 1925, but not published before autumn of 1925, after the exhibition at Kunsthalle Mannheim closed in September. The annex of his book contains two lists of artists who, as he thinks, should be looked at regarding the new currents. He further writes that he sent these artist lists to Gustav F. Hartlaub to support him in organizing the exhibition at Kunsthalle Mannheim.

   Franz Roh’s book and his writings were in many regards influential, for the 20s and 30s and up to the present. To which extend is the subject of this survey. It compares the artists in Franz Roh’s book with artists shown in exhibitions in the 20s, starting with Kunsthalle Mannheim and again later when in 1961 ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ was the title of an exhibition at Haus am Waldsee, Berlin, revisiting this important period.


Franz Roh – His Artist List

Franz Roh, Leipzig 1925
Franz Roh, page 133
Franz Roh, page 134
Table 3

To be able to compare the shown artists in exhibitions our first step was to transcribe the artist’s surnames in the two lists on page 133 and 134 of Franz Roh’s book, which existed already before he published it in automn 1925, after the exhibition at Kunsthalle Mannheim.
For artist-info, transcription of an artist name means identifying an artist by a documented exhibition in our database. The resulting interactive exhibition history on then provides insight into the artist’s exhibition history as well as the exhibition venue’s profile, not to forget the curator’s exhibitions. 

Table 3 below shows the result of this transcription.
‘Verzeichnis der abgebildeten Künstler’
The left part of the table shows 52 artists Franz Roh considers to be part of what he calls Nachexpressionismus, with an illustration of work in his book.
‘Verzeichnis weiterer Künstler’
Well aware that the new currents are part of an ongoing discussion and that artists are free in what they adopt or not in their work he provides the reader with a second list of suggested 58 artists listed on the right part of Table 3.

Exhibitions Before 1925

Young Italian painters are seen as the source for the new development.
Exhibition Link 43 | Das junge Italien
Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover, 22.05.-19.06.1921; organized by Mario Broglio (1891-1948)
The exhibition with eight artists was shown before in Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie, and later in Hamburg.
An important insight into this period gave
Exhibition Link Realismo magico – pittura e scultura in Italia 1919–1925
Gallerie dello Scudo, Verona, 27.11.1988-29.01.1989; organized by Maurizio Fagiolo dell’Arco (1939-2002)
showing 28 artists.

The Exhibitions of Mannheim 1925, Jena 1926, Berlin 1927, Amsterdam 1929
– Table 1 compares all artists of these four exhibitions

Table 1 below compares these four exhibitions and their artists. The artists who are part of Franz Roh’s list are marked in yellow.

Exhibition Link ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ – Deutsche Malerei seit dem Expressionismus
Kunsthalle Mannheim, 14.06.-13.09.1925; Curator: Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub
Gustav F. Hartlaub and Franz Roh did exchange their points of view already since a longer time, including the idea for an exhibition to address the new currents with work of specific artists. Comparing the artist list of Franz Roh and the 32 exhibited artists by Gustav F. Hartlaub shows that he included Ernst Haider (1890-1988) and Kay Heinrich Nebel (1888-1953), who are not part of Franz Roh’s list.
The exhibtion was shown as well in Dresden, Sächsischer Kunstverein, 18.10.-22.11.1925, and in Chemnitz, Kunsthütte zu Chemnitz 13.12.1925-17.01.1926.

Exhibition Link Die neue Sachlichkeit
Kunstverein Jena, 16.05.-13.06.1926; Curator: Walter Dexel
Walter Dexel extended Franz Roh’s selection as well and included Nikolai Petrowitsch Glutschenko (1901-1977), Kay Heinrich Nebel (1888-1953), and Gustav Adolf Schaffer (1881-1937).

Exhibition Link Die neue Sachlichkeit
Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin, March/April 1927
The gallery did show 23 artists of which 14 are on Franz Roh’s list. See our Table 1 below.
Interesting enough the exhibition’s catalog does include a foreword by Frank Roh, entitled ‘Nachexpressionistische Kunst’. However, although the exhibition is entitled ‘Die neue Sachlichkeit’, he does not use this term in his foreword at all.

Exhibition Link Tentoonstelling van de Onafhankelijken
– Inzending Duitsche ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’
, (Berlin, Breslau, Dresden, Hannover, Karlsruhe, Köln, Oldenburg, Paris)
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 11.05.-10.06.1929
Four years after the groundbreaking exhibition in Mannheim the list of the 25 shown artists in the Onafhankelijken’s exhibition in Amsterdam did look even more different: Only 10 artists are part of Franz Roh’s list.
See our Table 1 below.
The second part of this exhibition organized by the Exhibition Link ‘Onafhankelijken’, Vereeniging van Beeldende Kunstnaars Amsterdam, includes 139 artists. Among them Hannah Höch (1889-1979), Bram van Velde (1895-1981), Vilmos Huszár (1884-1960), Geer van Velde (1898-1977), Jan Sluijters (1881-1957), and Jan Wiegers (1893-1959).

Please use the artist’s individual artist-info exhibition history page to look up more exhibitions of the artists from 1880 up to the present.

Selection of four exhibitions 1961 up to the present
– Table 2 compares all artists of these four exhibitions

Table 2 below compares the following four exhibitions and their artists. The artists who are part of Franz Roh’s list are marked in yellow.

Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit
Haus am Waldsee, Berlin, 25.09.-29.10.1961; Curator: Eberhard Marx
The exhibition shows 31 artists, 12 of them are on Franz Roh’s list. Eberhard Marx writes in the forword that this exhibition is the first comprehensive overview after Mannheim in 1925 and Amsterdam in 1929 of the phenomenon ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’.

Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit – Bilder auf der Suche nach der Wirklichkeit – Figurative Malerei der zwanziger Jahre
Kunsthalle Mannheim, 09.10.1994-29.01.1995; Curator: Manfred Fath, Hans-Jürgen Buderer
The exhibition shows 66 artists, 21 are part of Franz Roh’s list.

Exhibition Link Realismo mágico – Franz Roh y la pintura europea 1917 – 1936
Instituto Valenciano de Arte Moderno, Centre Julio González, Valencia, 19.06.-31.08.1997; Curator: Marga Paz
For Franz Roh the ‘Magic Realism’, Post Expressionism / Nachexpressionismus’, ‘New Objectivity / Neue Sachlichkeit’ was a “problem in mostrecent European painting”, as he puts it in the titel of his book in 1925.
The exhibition in Valencia is an overview taking in account the European dimension of the new development in painting in the 20s and 30s.
The exhibition shows 66 artists, 28 are part of Franz Roh’s list.

Exhibition Link New Objectivity – Modern German Art in the Weimar Republic, 1919–1933
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 04.10.2015–18.01.2016; Curator: Stephanie Barron, Nana Bahlmann
The exhibition is the first comprehensive exhibition in the United States to explore the dominant artistic trends of this period. It is divided into five thematic sections that address the competing and at times conflicting approaches that the adherents to this new realism applied to the tumultuous and rapidly changing Weimar years. Some of the works included here attack political and social wrongs; others seem nostalgic or long for the past; still others focus on objects and human subjects, rendered in uninflected surfaces and seemingly frozen in time. The overall severity of New Objectivity reflects the harshness of its historical moment and the dedication of its artists to capture, if not to critique, the turmoil that surrounded them.
More about the focus of this exhibition can be found on our text page Blog post New Objectivity – Modern German Art in the Weimar Republic, 1919–1933
The exhibition shows 54 artists, 14 are part of Franz Roh’s list.

More exhibitions and important insight

The eight exhibitions in our Table 1 and Table 2 are important overviews and retrospectives. After the exhibition at ‘Haus am Waldsee’ in 1961 ‘Neue Sachlichkeit / New Objectivity’ was subject to many more exhibitions, in particular a more regional or national fucos.
Some of these exhibitions are listed here.
Please use the artist’s individual artist-info exhibition history page to look up more exhibitions of the artists from 1880 up to the present.
You may also want to use Main Search with queries like New Objectivity, Sachlichkeit, Realism, Realismus, Zwanziger Jahre and other related terms to find more exhibitions and their artists on

Exhibition Link Die Zwanziger Jahre in Hannover – Bildende Kunst, (Literatur, Theater, Tanz,) Architektur 1916–1933
Kunstverein Hannover, 12.08.-30.09.1962

Exhibition Link Realismus in der Malerei der 20er Jahre
Kunstverein in Hamburg, 19.10.-02.12.1968
Frankfurter Kunstverein, 14.12.1968 bis 02.02.1969

Exhibition Link Published in Germany, 1923
Museum of Modern Art – MoMA, New York, 20.10.1973 – 13.01.1974
Curator: Riva Castleman, Howardena Pindell Blog post Press Release of Published in Germany, 1923

Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit in Hannover
Kunstverein Hannover, 12.05.-30.06.1974

Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit and German Realism of the Twenties (1/2) – Painting
Curator: Wieland Schmied
Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit and German Realism of the Twenties (2/2) – Photography
Curator: Ute Eskildsen
Hayward Gallery, London, 11.11.1978-14.01.1979

Exhibition Link ‘Der stärkste Ausdruck unserer Tage’ – Neue Sachlichkeit in Hannover
Sprengel Museum, Hannover, 09.12.2001-10.31.2002, Curator: Christian Fuhrmeister

Exhibition Link Neue Sachlichkeit in Dresden – Malerei der Zwanziger Jahre von Dix bis Querner
Kunsthalle im Lipsiusbau, Dresden, 01.10.2011-08.01.2012, Curator: Birgit Dalbajewa

Exhibition Link Zwischen Traum und Reportage – Künstler der Neuen Sachlichkeit
Kunstsammlung Jena, 07.09.-23.11.2014, Curator: Erik Stephan

Exhibition Link Neu. Sachlich. Schweiz. – Malerei der Neuen Sachlichkeit in der Schweiz
Museum Oskar Reinhart, Winterthur, 02.09.2017–14.01.2018, Curator: Andrea Lutz, David Schmidhauser

Exhibition Link Glanz und Elend in der Weimarer Republik
SCHIRN Kunsthalle Frankfurt, 27.10.2017-25.02.2018, Curator: Ingrid Pfeiffer

Table 1 – Imoprtant Exhibitions in the 20s

link icon  Neue Sachlichkeit
Kunsthalle Mannheim
Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub
32 artists (Franz Roh: 30)
link icon  Die neue Sachlichkeit
Kunstverein Jena
Walter Dexel
18 artists (Franz Roh: 15)
link icon  Die neue Sachlichkeit
Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin
March/April 1927

23 artists (Franz Roh: 14)
link icon  Inzending 'Neue Sachlichkeit'
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
25 artists (Franz Roh: 10)
Babij, Ivan (1896 - 1974)Babij, Ivan (1896 - 1974)Diehl, Gottfried (1896 - 1956)Busack, Friedrich (1899 - 1933)
Beckmann, Max (1884 - 1950)Burmann, Fritz (1892 - 1945)Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969)Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969)
Burmann, Fritz (1892 - 1945)Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894 - 1970)Dressler, August Wilhelm (1886 - 1970)Dressler, August Wilhelm (1886 - 1970)
Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894 - 1970)Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969)Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965)Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965)
Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969)Erbslöh, Adolf (1881 - 1947)Griebel, Otto (1895 - 1972)Griebel, Otto (1895 - 1972)
Erbslöh, Adolf (1881 - 1947)Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965)Grossberg, Carl (1894 - 1940)Grossberg, Carl (1894 - 1940)
Ewald, Reinhold (1890 - 1974)Glutschenko, Nikolai Petrowitsch (1901 - 1977)Grosz, George (1893 - 1959)Grosz, George (1893 - 1959)
Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965)Grosz, George (1893 - 1959)Herber, Richard (1899 - 1974)Grundig, Hans (1901 - 1958)
Gloutchenko, Nicolas (1901 - 1977)Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939)Hoerle, Heinrich (1895 - 1936)Heitmüller, August (1873 - 1935)
Godron, Benjamin Johann (1902 - 1965)Kars, Georges (1882 - 1945)Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979)Hoffmann, Eugen (1892 - 1955)
Grosz, George [Georg Ehrenfried] (1893 - 1959)Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965)Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939)Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979)
Haider, Ernst (1890 - 1988)Nebel, Kay Heinrich (1888 - 1953)Lachnit, Wilhelm (1899 - 1962)Kretzschmar, Bernhard (1889 - 1972)
Heise, Wilhelm (1892 - 1965)Räderscheidt, Anton (1892 - 1970)Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965)Lachnit, Wilhelm (1899 - 1962)
Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979)Rössing, Karl (1897 - 1987)Ploberger, Herbert (1902 - 1977)Lenk, Franz (1898 - 1968)
Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939)Schaffer, Gustav Adolf (1881 - 1937)Radziwill, Franz (1895 - 1983)Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965)
Kars, Georges (1882 - 1945)Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955)Ripper, Rudolph Charles von (1905 - 1960)Mertens, Hans (1906 - 1944)
Kaufmann, Arthur (1888 - 1971)Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945)Schad, Christian (1894 - 1982)Ploberger, Herbert (1902 - 1977)
Kretzschmar, Bernhard (1889 - 1972)Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938)Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955)Radziwill, Franz (1895 - 1983)
Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965)Schmid, Wilhelm (1892 - 1971)Rudolph, Wilhelm (1889 - 1982)
Nebel, Kay Heinrich (1888 - 1953)Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945)Schad, Christian (1894 - 1982)
Otto, Wilfried (1901 - 1989)Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938)Schmid, Wilhelm (1892 - 1971)
Peiner, Werner (1897 - 1984)Schulz-Matan, Walter (1889 - 1965)Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938)
Räderscheidt, Anton (1892 - 1970)Seewald, Richard (1889 - 1976)Seewald, Richard (1889 - 1976)
Ripper, Rudolph Charles von (1905 - 1960)Thoms, Ernst (1896 - 1983)
Ritschl, Otto (1885 - 1976)Wegner, Erich (1899 - 1980)
Rössing, Karl (1897 - 1987)
Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955)
Schnarrenberger, Wilhelm (1892 - 1966)
Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945)
Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938)
Schulz-Matan, Walter (1889 - 1965)
Stoecklin, Niklaus (1896 - 1982)

Table 2 – Exhibitions from 1961 up to the present

link icon  Neue Sachlichkeit
Haus am Waldsee
Eberhard Marx
31 artists (Franz Roh: 12)
link icon  Neue Sachlichkeit
Kunsthalle Mannheim
Manfred Fath
66 artists (Franz Roh: 21)
link icon  Realismo mágico
IVAM Centre Julio González, Valencia, 19.06.-31.08.1997
Marga Paz
66 artists (Franz Roh: 28)
link icon  New Objectivity
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 04.10.2015–18.01.2016
Stephanie Barron
54 artists (Franz Roh: 14)
Babij, Ivan (1896 - 1974) Arnold, Christian (1889 - 1960) Andreu, Mariano (1888 - 1976) Ballhause, Walter (1911-1991)
Böttger, Herbert (1898 - 1954) Babij, Ivan (1896 - 1974) Arteta, Aurelio (1879 - 1940) Beckmann, Max (1884-1950)
Busack, Friedrich (1899 - 1933) Becker, Franz Helmut (1894 - 1952) Beckmann, Max (1884 - 1950) Biermann, Aenne Sternefeld (1898-1933)
Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894 - 1970) Beckmann, Max (1884 - 1950) Campigli, Massimo [Max Ihlenfeld] (1895 - 1971) Burmann, Fritz (1892-1945)
Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969) Birkle, Albert (1900 - 1986) Carrà, Carlo (1881 - 1966) Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894-1970)
Dörries, Bernhard (1898 - 1978) Bissier, Julius (1893 - 1965) Casorati, Felice (1883 - 1963) Debschitz-Kunowski, Wanda von (1870-1935)
Dressler, August Wilhelm (1886 - 1970) Burmann, Fritz (1892 - 1945) Chirico, Giorgio de (1888 - 1978) Dischinger, Rudolf (1904-1988)
Foerster, Peter Ludwig (1887 - 1948) Chirico, Giorgio de (1888 - 1978) Courmes, Alfred (1898 - 1993) Dix, Otto (1891-1969)
Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965) Citroën, Paul (1896 - 1983) Dalí, Salvador (1904 - 1989) Dörries, Bernhard (1898-1978)
Grossberg, Carl (1894 - 1940) Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894 - 1970) Davringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894 - 1970) Dressler, August Wilhelm (1886-1970)
Grosz, George (1893 - 1959) Dischinger, Rudolf (1904 - 1988) Derain, André (1880 - 1954) Erfurth, Hugo (1874-1948)
Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979) Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969) Dix, Otto (1891 - 1969) Finsler, Hans (1891-1972)
Jürgens, Grethe (1899 - 1981) Dörries, Bernhard (1898 - 1978) Domingo Segura, Francesc (1893 - 1974) Fuhr, Franz Xaver (1898-1973)
Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939) Erbslöh, Adolf (1881 - 1947) Donghi, Antonio (1897 - 1963) Griebel, Otto (1895-1972)
Kinzer, Georg (1896 - 1983) Erfurth, Hugo (1874 - 1948) Elías Bracons, Feliú (1878 - 1948) Grossberg, Carl (1894-1940)
Klein, Bernhard (1888 - 1967) Felixmüller, Conrad (1897 - 1977) Frau, José (1898 - 1976) Grosz, George (1893-1959)
Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965) Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965) Fresnaye, Roger de La (1885 - 1925) Grundig, Hans (1901-1958)
Mertens, Hans (1906 - 1944) Fuhr, Franz Xaver (1898 - 1973) Fritsch, Ernst (1892 - 1965) Günther, Kurt (1893-1955)
Möller, Otto (1883 - 1964) Gilles, Barthel (1891 - 1977) Funi, Achille (1890 - 1972) Hubbuch, Karl (1891-1979)
Ploberger, Herbert (1902 - 1977) Goldberg, Fred (1889 - 1973) Gaya, Ramón (1910 - 2005) Jacobi, Lotte Johanna (1896-1990)
Räderscheidt, Anton (1892 - 1970) Griebel, Otto (1895 - 1972) Grossberg, Carl (1894 - 1940) Jürgens, Grethe (1899-1981)
Radziwill, Franz (1895 - 1983) Grossberg, Carl (1894 - 1940) Grosz, George (1893 - 1959) Kanoldt, Alexander (1881-1939)
Ruppert, Kurt Friedrich [Karl] (*1893) Grosz, George (1893 - 1959) Guidi, Virgilio (1891 - 1984) Kleinschmidt, Paul (1883-1949)
Rüter, Karl (1902 - 1986) Grundig, Lea (1906 - 1977) Heise, Wilhelm (1892 - 1965) Köster, Arthur (1890-1965)
Schad, Christian (1894 - 1982) Heartfield, John [Helmut Herzfeld] (1891 - 1968) Herbin, Auguste (1882 - 1960) Kulvianski, Issai (1892-1970)
Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955) Hirzel, Manfred (1905 - 1932) Hofer, Karl [Carl] (1878 - 1955) Lachnit, Wilhelm (1899-1962)
Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945) Höch, Hannah (1889 - 1979) Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979) Lenk, Franz (1898-1968)
Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938) Hoerle, Heinrich (1895 - 1936) Ismael, Juan (1907 - 1981) Leo, Gerda (1909-1993)
Thoms, Ernst (1896 - 1983) HOLMEAD, [Clifford Holmead Phillips] (1889 - 1975) Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939) Lex-Nerlinger, Alice (1893-1975)
Viegener, Eberhard (1890 - 1967) Hubbuch, Karl (1891 - 1979) Lahuerta, Genaro (1905 - 1985) Mammen, Jeanne [M. L. Mammen] [M. L. Folcardy] (1890-1976)
Wegner, Erich (1899 - 1980) Jürgens, Grethe (1899 - 1981) Le Corbusier, [Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris] (1887 - 1965) Man, Felix H. (1893-1985)
Kanoldt, Alexander (1881 - 1939) Léger, Fernand (1881 - 1955) Mantz, Werner (1901-1983)
Kleinschmidt, Paul (1883 - 1949) Lenk, Franz (1898 - 1968) Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886-1965)
Lachnit, Wilhelm (1899 - 1962) León, Alfonso Ponce de (1900 - 1936) Mertens, Hans (1906-1944)
Lenk, Franz (1898 - 1968) Lhote, André (1885 - 1962) Overbeck-Schenk, Gerta (1898-1977)
Lohse-Wächtler, Elfriede (1899 - 1940) Mallo, Maruja (1902 - 1995) Perckhammer, Heinz von (1895-1975)
Mammen, Jeanne (1890 - 1976) Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965) Ploberger, Herbert (1902-1977)
Meidner, Ludwig (1884 - 1966) Metzinger, Jean (1883 - 1956) Räderscheidt, Anton (1892-1970)
Mense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886 - 1965) Miró, Joan (1893 - 1983) Radler, Max (1904-1971)
Möller, Otto (1883 - 1964) Monzón, Felo (1910 - 1989) Radziwill, Franz (1895-1983)
Morandi, Giorgio (1890 - 1964) Olasagasti, Jesús (1907 - 1955) Renger-Patzsch, Albert (1897-1966)
Müller-Hufschmid, Willi (1890 - 1966) Oppi, Ubaldo (1889 - 1942) Roh, Franz (1890-1965)
Nagel, Otto (1894 - 1967) Oramas, José Jorge (1911 - 1935) Sander, August (1876-1964)
Nägele, Reinhold (1884 - 1972) Ozenfant, Amédée (1886 - 1966) Schad, Christian (1894-1982)
Ploberger, Herbert (1902 - 1977) Palencia, Benjamín (1894 - 1980) Schlichter, Rudolf (1890-1955)
Räderscheidt, Anton (1892 - 1970) Pérez Rubio, Timoteo (1896 - 1977) Schmidt, Leonhard (1892-1978)
Radler, Max (1904 - 1971) Picasso, Pablo (1881 - 1973) Schnarrenberger, Wilhelm (1892-1966)
Radziwill, Franz (1895 - 1983) Pietro, Cagnaccio di San (1897 - 1946) Scholz, Georg (1890-1945)
Schad, Christian (1894 - 1982) Pisis, Filippo de [Luigi Filippo Tibertelli] (1896 - 1956) Schrimpf, Georg (1889-1938)
Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955) Räderscheidt, Anton (1892 - 1970) Seidenstücker, Friedrich (1882-1966)
Schmidt, Leonhard (1892 - 1978) Radziwill, Franz (1895 - 1983) Völker, Karl (1889-1962)
Schnarrenberger, Wilhelm (1892 - 1966) Roy, Pierre (1880 - 1950) Wegner, Erich (1899-1980)
Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945) Sacharoff, Olga Nicolaevna (1889 - 1967) Wollheim, Gert Heinrich (1894-1974)
Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938) Santana, Santiago (1909 - 1995) Wunderwald, Gustav (1882-1945)
Schulz-Matan, Walter (1889 - 1965) Schad, Christian (1894 - 1982)
Seiwert, Franz-Wilhelm (1894 - 1933) Schlichter, Rudolf (1890 - 1955)
Sommer, Alice (1898 - 1982) Scholz, Georg (1890 - 1945)
Umbo, [Otto Umbehr] (1902 - 1980) Schrimpf, Georg (1889 - 1938)
Uzarski, Adolf (1885 - 1970) Severini, Gino (1883 - 1966)
Voigt, Bruno (1912 - 1988) Sironi, Mario (1885 - 1961)
Wedewer, Josef (1896 - 1979) Souto, Arturo (1904 - 1964)
Wegner, Erich (1899 - 1980) Sunyer, Joaquím (1874 - 1956)
Weinhold, Kurt (1896 - 1965) Togorès, José María de (1893 - 1970)
Wollheim, Gert Heinrich (1894 - 1974) Tozzi, Mario (1895 - 1979)
Wunderwald, Gustav (1882 - 1945) Ucelay, José María de (1903 - 1979)
Ziegler, Richard (1891 - 1992) Vázquez Díaz, Daniel (1882 - 1969)

Table 3 – Franz Roh 1925

Roh, Franz: Nach-Expressionismus. Magischer Realismus. Probleme der neuesten europäischen Malerei; Leipzig, Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1925, pages 133, 134.

Verzeichnis der abgebildeten Künstler
Page 133
(Exh.)Verzeichnis weiterer Künstler
Page 134
AlixAlix, Yves (1890-1969) (8)ArnoldArnold, Christian (1889-1960) (9)
BabijBabij, Ivan (1896-1974) (8)BodmerBodmer, Paul (1886-1983) (12)
BeckmannBeckmann, Max (1884-1950) (432)M. R. BrunoBruno, Marc (1901-1942) (0)
BenedekBenedek, Péter (1889-1984) (1)F. BurmannBurmann, Fritz (1892-1945) (6)
BörjeBörje, Gideon (1891-1965) (2)CasoratiCasorati, Felice (1883-1963) (46)
BortnyikBortnyik, Sándor [Alexander] (1893-1976) (37)ChampionChampion, Theodor (1887-1952) (9)
CarràCarrà, Carlo (1881-1966) (117)Primo ContiConti, Primo (1900-1988) (9)
ChiricoChirico, Giorgio de (1888-1978) (248)DinklageDinklage, Erna (1895-1991) (1)
CitroenCitroën, Paul (1896-1983) (32)DonghiDonghi, Antonio (1897-1963) (13)
CoubineKubín, Otakar (1883-1969) (26)Erbach (zum Teil)Erbach, Alois (1888-1972) (10)
DahlskogDahlskog, Ewald Albin Filip (1894-1950) (2)Erbslöh (zum Teil)Erbslöh, Adolf (1881-1947) (52)
DardelDardel, Nils von (1888-1943) (16)R. EwaldEwald, Reinhold (1890-1974) (15)
DavringhausenDavringhausen, Heinrich Maria (1894-1970) (39)GlustschenkoGloutchenko, Nicolas (1901-1977) (1)
DerainDerain, André (1880-1954) (208)GodronGodron, Benjamin Johann (1902-1965) (1)
DixDix, Otto (1891-1969) (267)GuidiGuidi, Virgilio (1891-1984) (38)
ErnstErnst, Max (1891-1976) (500)GunschmannGunschmann, Carl (1895-1984) (7)
FoujitaFoujita, Léonard Tsuguharu (1886-1968) (19)Eric HallströmHallström, Eric [Cornelius Efraim] (1893-1946) (3)
FritschFritsch, Ernst (1892-1965) (41)Carl Hofer (neuerdings, nur sehr zum Teil)Hofer, Karl [Carl] (1878-1955) (187)
FuniFuni, Achille (1890-1972) (21)W. IllmerIllmer, Willy (1899-1968) (1)
GalanisGalanis, Dimitrios Emmanuel (1879-1966) (6)Itten (neuerdings)Itten, Johannes (1888-1967) (84)
GroszGrosz, George [Georg Ehrenfried] (1893-1959) (271)A. JakowlewJacovleff, Alexandre Yevgenievich (1887-1938) (8)
HeiseHeise, Wilhelm (1892-1965) (22)A. KaufmannKaufmann, Arthur (1888-1971) (7)
HerbinHerbin, Auguste (1882-1960) (147)C. Klein (neuerdings)Klein, César (1876-1954) (26)
HubbuchHubbuch, Karl (1891-1979) (62)KremlickaKremli?ka, Rudolf (1886-1932) (3)
HuberHuber, Hermann (1888-1967) (29)LachnitLachnit, Wilhelm (1899-1962) (27)
JustitzJustitz, Alfréd (1879-1934) (1)LozowikLozowick, Louis (1892-1973) (36)
KanoldtKanoldt, Alexander (1881-1939) (64)MagnelliMagnelli, Alberto (1888-1971) (127)
KarsKars, Georges (1882-1945) (23)Emilio MalerbaMalerba, Gian Emilio (1880-1926) (2)
KislingKisling, Moïse (1891-1953) (25)G. MorandiMorandi, Giorgio (1890-1964) (146)
KretzschmarKretzschmar, Bernhard (1889-1972) (35)Axel NilssonNilsson, Axel (1889-1981) (6)
KrohgKrohg, Per Lasson (1889-1965) (19)W. OttoOtto, Wilfried (1901-1989) (2)
LevyLévy, Léopold (1882-1966) (1)ParzingerParzinger, Tommi (1903-1981) (0)
LinnqvistLinnqvist, Hilding (1891-1984) (13)W. PeinerPeiner, Werner (1897-1984) (8)
MakowskiMakowski, Józef? Tadeusz (1882-1932) (7)Pellegrini (neuerdings)Pellegrini, Alfred Heinrich (1881-1958) (35)
MaunyMauny, Jacques (1893-1962) (10)C. von RipperRipper, Rudolph Charles von (1905-1960) (2)
MenseMense, Carlo [Otto Marto] (1886-1965) (59)O. RitschlRitschl, Otto (1885-1976) (72)
MetzingerMetzinger, Jean (1883-1956) (80)RodenwaldRodewald, Otto (1891-1960) (2)
MiroMiró, Joan (1893-1983) (608)K. RössingRössing, Karl (1897-1987) (23)
NebelNebel, Otto (1892-1973) (27)Olga SacharoffSacharoff, Olga Nicolaevna (1889-1967) (3)
OppiOppi, Ubaldo (1889-1942) (10)Schilling (Simplizis-simuszeichner)Schilling, Erich (1885-1945) (2)
PicassoPicasso, Pablo (1881-1973) (1073)R. SchlichterSchlichter, Rudolf (1890-1955) (73)
RäderscheidtRäderscheidt, Anton (1892-1970) (36)Wilh. SchmidSchmid, Wilhelm (1892-1971) (15)
ScholzScholz, Georg (1890-1945) (40)W. SchnarrenbergerSchnarrenberger, Wilhelm (1892-1966) (21)
SchrimpfSchrimpf, Georg (1889-1938) (74)E.SchönbergSchönberg, Ewald (1882-1949) (3)
SchuchajewSchuchajew, Wassili Iwanowitsch (1887-1974) (1)Frithiof SchülthSchüldt, Fritiof (1891-1978) (3)
SeveriniSeverini, Gino (1883-1966) (159)Schulz-MatanSchulz-Matan, Walter (1889-1965) (7)
SköldSköld, Otte (1894-1958) (9)Seewald (neuerdings)Seewald, Richard (1889-1976) (42)
SmithSmith, Percy John Delf (1882-1948) (1)Stegemann (neuer-dings zum Teil)Stegemann, Heinrich (1888-1945) (8)
SpiesSpies, Walter (1895-1942) (5)Nik. StöcklinStoecklin, Niklaus (1896-1982) (18)
ThevenetThévenet, Jacques (1891-1989) (4)O. TrepteTrepte, Oskar (1890-1969) (2)
TogorésTogorès, José María de (1893-1970) (9)Tscharner (zum Teil)Tscharner, Johann Wilhelm von (1886-1946) (3)
Zur-MuehlenBroglio, Edita Walterowna [zur Mühlen] (1886-1977) (6)Unold (neuerdings)Unold, Max (1885-1964) (15)
Utrillo (nur zum Teil)Utrillo, Maurice (1883-1955) (53)
WatenphulPeiffer Watenphul, Max (1896-1976) (39)
F. A. Weber (neuerdings)Weber, Evarist Adam (1887-1968) (2)
E. Zak (zum Teil)Zak, Eugène (1884-1926) (12)
E ZellerZeller, Eugen (1889-1974) (10)
Ziegler (München)Ziegler, Siegfried (1894-1971) (2)

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The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

Exhibition History / Gallery / History / Posts Main / Research
Harvard Society, The School of Paris, The School of New York, Photography, Bauhaus 119-1923/1924

The School of Paris 1910–1928  Painting and Sculpture by the School of New York 1920–1930  Photography 1930  Bauhaus 1919–1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau

The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

   Many essays have been written about Lincoln Kirstein (1907 – 1996), John Walker III (1906 – 1995), and Edward M. M. Warburg (1908 – 1992) and their exhibition venue at 1400 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, on the second floor of the Harvard Cooperative Building, in Room 207 and 208. To know the exhibition timeline and the shown artists is important for each survey on the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art and is subject of this blog post as part of artist-info‘s focus on documenting exhibitions from 1880 up to the present, worldwide.
   The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Inc. wanted to show new currents and movements in art by local and national artists, as well as new European artwork, architecture, design, typography, film, and photography. Although the three student’s budget to run the gallery was very limited, their enthusiasm for Modernism was not and their groundbreaking effort was influential in many ways. The three had the courage to confront the public, the press, and art critics with gallery exhibitions of Modernism artwork. This would not have been possible without the academic network they belonged to: First to mention Paul Sachs and Edward Forbes, then A. Everett ‘Chick’ Austin, Kirk Askew, Jere Abbott, Alfred H. Barr, Henry-Russell Hitchcock, and the undergraduates Philip Johnson and Julien Levy. The board of trustees of the Inc. included: Edward Waldo Forbes (director of the Fogg Museum), Paul Joseph Sachs (associated director of the Fogg Museum, professor of art history), John Nicholas Brown (collector), Philip Hofer (collector), Arthur Pope (professor of art history), Arthur Sachs (financier), and Felix M. Warburg (Edward’s father).
   Their mission was based on the exhibitions they organized and the artists they were showing in these exhibitions. The timeline below starts with their first exhibition in February 1929 and ends 1932, the year Lincoln Kirstein moved to New York. He had become member of MoMA’s Advisory Committee and chairman of the exhibition committee. He was exhibition director of Murals by American Painters and Photographers – Mural Paintings and – Photo-Murals, the opening exhibition at MoMA’s new address at 11 West 53rd Street.

Exhibitions and Artists 1929-1932

Exhibition History An alternative to the static list below provides the interactive exhibition timeline on the artist-info page of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, with all exhibitions, all their artists and access to the artists’ other exhibitions and exhibition venues, starting 1880.
   Our starting point to document the exhibition history of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art and the shown artists was Nicolas Fox Weber’s ‘Patron Saints – Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943’ (Yale University Press, 1995). Looking into additional sources and the original exhibition catalogs brought to light many more artists than the overview in ‘Patron Saints – Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943’ is giving and provides like this an exciting new insight.
   Exciting does mean that you find today, early March 2018, for the 285 artists we could document so far for the HSCA’s exhibitions between 1929 and 1932 more than 23.100 cross-linked solo- and group-exhibitions of these artists from 1880 up to the present at many exhibition venues in North America, in Europe, and Asia in our artist-info database.

Examples how artist-info could be helpful for your research

 A. Everett ‘Chick’ Austin did show in 1930 Richard B. Fuller – 4D – Dymaxion House, Modern Mexican Art, Modern German Art, and Photography 1930 in Hartford immediately after their presentation in Cambridge. Look up Wadsworth Atheneum and its exhibition history on artist-info.
 The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art was collaborating with New York galleries. Look up e.g. Julien Levy Gallery with its exhibitions and their artists on artist-info.
 Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau: The Bauhaus exhibition at the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art in December 1930 was not only the first in the United States, it was as well its first retrospective: Weimar was closed in 1925, Walter Gropius did step down as director April 1, 1928, and the NSDAP did close down the Bauhaus in Dessau in 1932.
   The next important Bauhaus retrospective was at the MoMA in December 1938, organized and installed by the artist Herbert Bayer. At the exhibition’s news conference on December 3, 1938, Walter Gropius, then chairman of the School of Architecture, Harvard University, was the most prominent speaker. You may want to compare the artists of these two early retrospectives by looking up The Bauhaus 1919–1928 at the MoMA and at the HSCA, or use artist-info Main Search to look up exhibitions related to the query Bauhaus, with a result of more than 48 exhibitions and their artists.
 You may want to look up the exhibitions and their artists of Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden which supplied the large selection of prints in the Modern German Art exhibition.
 Photography 1930: You may want to compare the artists in the HSCA exhibition with Foto-Auge by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, to which Lincoln Kirstein refers to in his ‘Introductory Note’. Foto-Auge was published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in May 1929. Lincoln Kirstein describes in his text the importance of “simple clarity in documentary form” and “the contemporary consciousness of time” the camera offers, but wants to show as well with the artists in his exhibition that the artistic use of the camera has reached a new quality.
   More insight on photography and the ‘new vision’ can be found with our survey  The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach and Thomas Walther Collection – Avant-Garde Photography in the 1920s & 1930s

Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932

Each exhibition with This exhibition on opens the exhibition's individual page,
with each artist's full name, link to the artist's exhibition history on, and additional links, e.g. Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity or other Authority Control.
* Artists listed in original Harvard Society for Contemporary Art catalog.
To be sure that the list of artists of exhibitions isn't incomplete we continue looking up original archival material.
Last update March 20, 2018
19.02. - 15.03.1929 This exhibition on An Exhibition of 'American Art' *   1
Oils: Bellows, Benton, Davies, Hopper, Hopkinson, Kent, Miller, O'Keeffe, Prendergast, Robinson, Sloan, Speicher, Sterne.
Sculpture: Archipenko, Lachaise, Laurent.
Drawings and Watercolors: Burchfield, Demuth, Hopper, Kent, Marin, Sterne.
Prints (Etchings, Lithographs, Woodcuts, Photographs): Bellows, Davies, Hopper, Kent, Lankes, Marin, Sloan, Sterne, Stieglitz.
Decorative Arts: Deskey, Locher, Poor, Schoen.
19.03. - 12.04.1929
School of Paris
This exhibition on An Exhibition of the School of Paris 1910–1928 *   2
Oils: Beaudin, Bonnard, Braque, Chirico, Dufy, Friesz, Gris, Gromaire, Kisling, Laurencin, Lurçat, Man Ray, Marcoussis, Masereel, Mauny, Metzinger, Miró, Modigliani, Pascin, Rouault, Segonzac, Soutine, Vlaminck.
Drawings and Watercolors: Dufresne, Fresnaye, Lhote, Léger, Vergé-Sarrat.
Sculpture: Brâncusi, Despiau, Maillol, Orloff.
Prints (Etchings, Lithographs, Woodcuts): Bonnard, Braque, Derain, Dufy, Gromaire, Kisling, Laurencin, Lhote, Maillol, Masereel, Matisse, Pascin, Rouault, Segonzac, Vergé-Sarrat, Vlaminck.
Decorative Art: Dufy, Dunand, Lalique, Legrain, Linossier, Marinot, Puiforcat, Templier.
April - 09.05.1929This exhibition on Maurice Prendergast
20.05. - 24.05.1929This exhibition on Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House

Fine Books and Illustrations from modern German Presses, 1907–1928 *
Bremer Press, Cranach Press, Ernst Ludwig Press, Ratio Press, Kleukens Press, Rupprecht Press, Janus Press, Ernst Engel Press, Juniperus Press, Officina Serpentis Press, Rudolfinische Press, Marcus Behmer Press, and Oda Weibrecht Press.
(Traveling Show)
Harvard graduates
Including two watercolors by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin.
17.10. - 01.11.1929
Painting and Sculpture
This exhibition on An Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture by the School of New York 1920–1930 *
Paintings: Blume, Coleman, Davis, Dickinson, DuBois, Fiene, Glackens, Hirsch, Kane, Karfiol, Kroll, Kuhn, Kuniyoshi, Luks, Rosen, Schmidt, Schnakenburg, Sheeler, Simkovitch, Tucker, Weber.
Sculpture: Calder, Lachaise, Noguchi, Sterne, Storrs, Talcott, W. Zorach.
Prints: P. Bacon, Coleman, Davis, Fiene, Kuhn, Kuniyoshi, Weber, M. Zorach.
07.11. - 27.11.1929 This exhibition on Derain Matisse Picasso Despiau.   3
06.12. - 30.12.1929 This exhibition on American Cartoonists and Caricaturists
Arno, Bacon, Bairnsfather, Barton, Calder, Carlisle, Collier, Covarrubias, Darling [Ding], Dove, Fisher, Fruch, Haupt, Held Jr., Hoskinson, Irvin, Karass, Kirby, Kronengold, Low, Miskey, Nagle, Odie, Rea.   4
10.01. - 25.01.1930 This exhibition on Japanese and English Pottery and Weaving
Cardew, Hamada, Leach, Pleydell-Bouverie.   5
27.01. - 04.02.1930This exhibition on Alexander Calder
04.03. - 15.03.1930This exhibition on Watercolors by a Group of Five
Chase, Cutler, Hopkinson, Pepper, Perkins - Sculpture by Noguchi.
12.03. - 14.03.1930 This exhibition on Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House
Updated model of Dymaxion House.   6
21.03. - 12.04.1930 This exhibition on Modern Mexican Art *
Ángel, Charlot, Goitia, Guerrero, Mérida, Orozco, Pacheco, Posada, Revueltas, Rivera, Siqueiros, Tamayo.   7
17.04. - 10.05.1930 This exhibition on Modern German Art *   8
Paintings (Oils, Drawings, Watercolors): Beckmann, Grosz, Heckel, Hofer, Kaus, Kirchner, Klee, Kokoschka, Kolbe, Mueller, Nolde, Pechstein, Rée, Rohlfs, Schmidt-Rottluff, Schulze-Soelde, Schwichtenberg.
Prints: Barlach, Baumeister, Boehle, Corinth, Dix, Feininger, Grosz, Großmann, Heise, Hofer, Hofmann, Kandinsky, Klee, Klemm, Kokoschka, Lehmbruck, Liebermann, Michel, Mueller, Nolde, Pechstein, Schmidt-Rottluff, Schrimpf, Sintenis, Thoma.
Sculpture: Amstem (Adams), Belling, di Fiori, Kolbe, Lehmbruck, Sintenis.
15.10. - 31.10.1930 Exhibition of American Folk Painting in Connection with the Massachusetts Tercentenary Celebration   9
07. - 29.11.1930
Photography 1930
This exhibition on Photography 1930 *   10
Photographs: Abbott, Atget, Beaton, Bourke-White, Bruehl, Evans, Gerlach, Hoyningen-Huené, MacDonald, Man Ray, Modotti, Móhóly-Nagy, Rittase, Schell, Sheeler, Steichen, Steiner, Stieglitz, Strand, Ulmann, Weston.
Aerial, Astronomical, Press, X-Ray (Sections with alltogether 29 anonymous photogrpahs)
Magazines: Vanity Fair, Vogue, Fortune, The New Yorker, Harpers Bazar et. al.
December 1930 - 14.01.1931
This exhibition on Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau *   11
Paintings and Drawings (Color Prints, Drawings, Etchings, Color Lithographs, Lithographs, Oils, Watercolors, Woodcuts): Borchert, L. Feininger, Itten, Kandinsky, Klee, Marcks, Schlemmer, Schreyer. Portfolio of Russian and Italian artists.
Typography: Bayer.
Decorative Arts and Photgraphs of Decorative Arts: Classen, Brandt, Nösselt, Stölzl.
Photographs: Th. L. Feininger, and Photographs of the Bauhaus Buildings.
Photographs of Paintings by: Albers, L. Feininger, Muche, Bayer, Klee, Kandinsky.
Books and Periodicals: Bayer, Clauss, Doesburg, Gleizes, Gropius, Kandinsky, Klee, Moholy-Nagy, Malewitsch, Mondrian, Oud, Schlemmer.
15.01. - 13.02.1931This exhibition on Pablo Picasso
40 Drawings, etchings, lithographs, and facsimiles
February 1931Harvard graduates
21.02. - 21.03.1931This exhibition on Paintings by Nine Americans
Carroll, Eilshemius, Gibbs, Kantor, Kopman, Marsh, McFee, Orr, Tobey.
(22nd HSCA Exhibition)
27.03. - 18.04.1931
England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales
This exhibition on England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, 1890–1930. Painting, Drawing, Sculpture *
Conder, Dobson, Epstein, Etchells, Fry, Gaudier-Brzeska, Gill, Gore, Grant, Hunt, John, John, Keating, Lewis, McCance, McEvoy, Meninsky, Munnings, Nash, Nevinson, Nicholls, Roberts, Rothenstein, Russell, Sickert, Underwood, Wyndham, Yeats.   12
November 1931This exhibition on Modern Painting in Review
Cézanne, Degas, Derain, Gauguin, Gogh, Kandinsky, Léger, Marin, Matisse, Monet, Picasso, Renoir, Seurat.
December 1931
This exhibition on Abstraction *
Archipenko, Bauer, Belling, Brâncusi, Braque, Chagall, Chirico, El Greco, Gauguin, Gris, Lachaise, Léger, Lurçat, Masson, Metzinger, Móhóly-Nagy, Mondiran, O'Keeffe, Picasso.
January 1932This exhibition on Pablo Picasso
'Metamorphoses' by Ovid: Drawings, copper plates, etchings, artist proofs.
February 1932 This exhibition on Surrealism
Atget, Bayer, Boiffard, Chirico, Cocteau, Cornell, Dalí, Duchamp, Ernst, Howard, Leyda, Lynes, Léger, Man Ray, Móhóly-Nagy, Parry, Picasso, Roy, Tabard, Umbo, Viollier.   13
21.03. - 02.04.1932This exhibition on Architecture and Interiors
Gropius, Howe, Lescaze, Frank Lloyd Wright (incomplete artist list).
18.04. - 14.05.1932This exhibition on Paintings by Modern American Artists
Ganso, Davis, Karfiol, Kantor, Marsh.
September 1932This exhibition on Ben Shahn
Pictorial Treatment of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, 23 gouaches.
October 1932Photography Show (Soviet Art)
November 1932Stage Sets and Costume Design

Our sources for this exhibition timeline

* Artists listed in original Harvard Society for Contemporary Art catalog.
Each artist's full name is listed on the  This exhibition on exhibition's page.
- Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints - Five Rebels Who Opened America to a New Art, 1928-1943', Yale University Press, 1995.
- 'The Harvard Crimson', Cambridge (MA).
- 'Lincoln Kirstein - The Published Writings', Eakins Press Foundation, New York.
- The National Gallery of Art Library (Washington D.C.), the MoMA Library and the Metropolitan Museum of Art Thomas J. Watson Library (New York), the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library (New Haven) among others.

Footnotes - Additional Sources
1 - Catalog text 'Note' [unsigned], page 4, by Lincoln Kirstein.   
2 - Catalog text 'Note' [unsigned], page 4, by Lincoln Kirstein.   
3 - Catalog text [Notes on the artists, unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.   
4 - Artists listed in: The Harvard Crimson, 'Art Society Displays American Cartoons - Exhibition by Harvard Society of Contemporary Art Opens Today in Rooms of Organization'; December 6, 1929.
Transcription: Aladjalow > David Low (1891 - 1963), Ding > Jay Darling (1876 - 1962).   
5 - Artists listed in: Clark, Garth: 'Cardew in America', Interpreting Ceramics, Issue 3, 2002 (Issue 3 covers Conference Papers & Reports of 'The Michael Cardew Centenary Symposium'; University of Wales, Aberstwyth, UK, 27-28 June 2001)   
6 - Richard B. Fuller - 4D - Dymaxion House was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge. (Gaddis, Eugene R.: 'Magician of the Modern. Chick Austin and the Transformation of the Arts in America', Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2000, p. 140)   
7 - Modern Mexican Art was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 140)   
8 - Catalog text 'Historical Background' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden, provided the large selection of prints for this exhibition.
Modern German Art (1/3), (2/3), and (3/3) was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge from 19.05. – 02.06.1930. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 140)   
9 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Exhibition title in Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints': Folk Painting of Three Centuries   
10 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [and notes on the photographers; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Lincoln Kirstein does refer in his 'Introductory Note' to Foto-Auge by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in May 1929. Photography 1930 shows the importance of "simple clarity in documentary form" and "the contemporary consciousness of time" the camera offers, but wants to show as well that the artistic use has reached a new quality.
Photography 1930 was shown by A. Everett 'Chick' Austin at Wadsworth Atheneum immediately after Cambridge in December 1930. (Gaddis, Eugene R., op.cit., p. 141)   
11 - The catalog courtesy: National Gallery of Art Library, David K. E. Bruce Fund, Washington D.C..
The Bauhaus exhibition was discontinued on Saturday, January 17 [Saturday, January 15] [Source: The Harvard Crimson, 'Exhibition by Picasso will open next week'; Saturday, January 15, 1931]. Public opening of the Picasso exhibition on Friday, January 23. A private exhibition of Picasso pictures will precede the public opening Thursday, January 22].
Catalog text 'Introduction' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
The Harvard Society Bauhaus exhibition was shown subsequently at John Becker Gallery, 520 Madison Avenue at 53rd Street, New York, Bauhaus - 1919–1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau, January 20 - February 10, 1931.
For the exhibition at John Becker Gallery the Harvard Society Bauhaus catalog was reprinted with the gallery's address on the cover. Lincoln Kirstein's name was given as both the writer of the catalog's text and the designer of the cover (Source: Weber, Nicolas Fox, p. 118].
The third venue of the traveling exhibition was Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, March 13 - 28, 1931, at The Arts Club of Chicago.   
12 - Catalog text 'Introductory Note' [and notes on the artists; unsigned] by Lincoln Kirstein.
Exhibition title in Weber, Nicolas Fox: 'Patron Saints': Modern Art from Britain   
13 - Artists listed in: Schaffner, Ingrid and Jacobs, Lisa (editor): 'Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery', The MIT Press, Cambridge 1998, p. 173.
Surrealism was shown before Cambridge at Julien Levy Gallery, New York, entitled Surréalisme, 09.-29.01.1932   

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The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach and Thomas Walther Collection – Avant-Garde Photography in the 1920s & 1930s

Analytics / Collector / History / Research
Photomontage of the Wolkenbügel by El Lissitzky, 1925 (or 1923)

Photomontage of the Wolkenbügel by El Lissitzky, 1925 (or 1923), © public domain

The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and Thomas Walther Collection

(Blog post updated January 23, 2018)

   This survey doesn’t examine exclusively individual works of some selected photo artists. It looks at the complete list of shown artists in many thousand exhibitions with the help of artist-info database and provides like this a new, so far impossible insight.

   The idea for this survey was born when I read about Cornelius Gurlitt, the art historian (Nischwitz 1850–1938 Dresden), Hildebrand Gurlitt, the museum director, Kunstverein director, and art dealer (Dresden 1895–1956 Oberhausen), and Cornelius Gurlitt, the art collector (Hamburg 1932–2014 München) in Maurice Philip Remy’s book “Der Fall Gurlitt – Die wahre Geschichte über Deutschlands größten Kunstskandal” 1 about their life. Based on intense research the book shows how much went wrong in the case Gurlitt.
   The artists of the photography collection of Kurt Kirchbach (Senftenberg (Niederlausitz) 1891–1967 Freiburg i.Br.), initiated and directed by Hildebrand Gurlitt and exhibited by him as director of the Kunstverein in Hamburg, from January 10 – February 14, 1932 as Internationale Foto-Ausstellung, Kurt Kirchbach are still waiting to be known in all details. 2 As an experienced witness of the art world of his time Hildebrand Gurlitt’s position regarding ‘new photography’, the ‘new vision’ is of particular interest for us today.
   Another collection covering avant-garde photography of the 20s and 30s is the Thomas Walther Collection at the MoMA. It is a selection made by Thomas Walther (*1950), a young German photographer who had moved to New York in 1977 and later became a member of the Museum’s Committee on Photography. His collection joined the MoMA’s collection in 2001 by proposal of former Chief Curator of Photography Peter Galassi. The collection’s photographs were subject to a four years in depth research and restoration project and exhibition which took place December 13, 2014 – April 19, 2015, entitled “Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection, 1909–1949”, with its own website
   The collection Cornelius Gurlitt inherited from his father Hildebrand Gurlitt after his sudden death in 1956 did include paintings, drawings and prints but no photography. Throughout his life Hildebrand Gurlitt was a passionate collector of mostly contemporary drawings and prints and could support numerous exhibitions with loans. The new vision in the field of photography after WWI wasn’t an international nor European movement. It was bound to German art movements and the pace of industrial development. However, the use of photography by artists and its development as media continued in other countries, too.

   Photography as a media became the ideal mirror for this pace by not only documenting it but to enrich the imagery as well with a new esthetic formula and language. Hildebrand Gurlitt was able to select by profound knowledge and talent on the basis of the artist’s œuvre, but the initiative for the photography collection may have come more from Kurt Kirchbach’s side, head of a successful automobile parts company. Hildebrand Gurlitt may have seen as well that his passion for paintings, drawings and prints, of which Kurt Kirchbach was as well a collector, are part of a well developed market whereas photography at this time left no footprint in the art market. Film und Foto in Stuttgart in spring 1929 was much more a kaleidoscope of new flourishing social and industrial self-understanding than a well organized art exhibition – in contrary to ‘Fotografie der Gegenwart’ at the Folkwang Museum Essen in January of 1929. Read below why this was the much better place to go to.

Two important photography collections covering the 20s and 30s
One question: Which insight offers the juxtaposition of the collection’s artists?

   The Kirchbach Photography Collection was a child of its time with its innovative visions the Walther Collection was born 50 years after this innovative period and is a retrospective approach.

How to compare the two collections?

   The artists are an important key information: Who are the artists in the Kurt

Kirchbach Collection? Who are the artists in the Thomas Walther collection? See the table below.
   Did they become part of the two collections because they were meant to be important, influential, experimental, what happened to them and their work in the past 90 years? Were they forgotten, were they important for a specific period, or was their work appreciated across many decades?
     A possible approach could be to compare auction results of the artists. From a sales point of view a good idea, but hopeless regarding the profile of the artists and their positioning in the public and art historical presence, as our survey  Are Auctions a good place to buy Contemporary Art? could show.
      Analyzing the individual photographs and their role in the artist’s œuvre could provide more insight into the collector’s personal taste and selection.
       This survey uses artist-info‘s exhibition documentation of the artists and exhibition venues to juxtapose the two collections. Looking up with artist-info the artists shown to the public in group-exhibitions is an important source of information to find out more about profiles, positioning and the development of artists, and the exhibition venue.
   Up to the present artist-info knows for the 82 artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection, which are identified up to now, more than 2.910 exhibitions, for the 147 artists of the Thomas Walther Collection more than 5.840 either solo- or group-exhibitions, organized by galleries, museums, or non-profit venues.
   To avoid any misunderstanding: Although this survey uses numbers and tables for its analytical approach – by the way figures which always existed but have never been documented in a database – we know as well most of the exhibition catalogs documented with artist-info and therefore the photographs in case they were illustrated, or the artist’s œuvre. Instead of name dropping of the Top 10 this survey sheds a different light on the two collections and on the 20s and 30s, summarized at the end in the chapter ‘Unframing the world’.

Hildebrand Gurlitt

   The first occupation after finishing his art history studies under Rudolf Kautzsch at the Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main was his appointment as director of the König-Albert-Museum, Zwickau in April 1925. The 1914 inaugurated museum offered for Hildebrand Gurlitt the most advantages opportunity to reorganize the older paintings and parts of the existing collection and to add a collection of contemporary art, a domain for which already his father had owned important reputation. Although he became famous with three volumes on Barock architecture as part of ‘Geschichte der neueren Baukunst / by Jacob Burckhardt and Wilhelm Lübke’, Cornelius Gurlitt was also a well established art critic. His comment in his book Internationale Kunstausstellung zu Berlin 1891 3 in 1892 did blame the missing younger Norwegian artists, ‘the most advanced Realists’, among them Edvard Munch. He must have been aware of one of the first appearances of the new and ‘unofficial art’ in Berlin, the exhibition Vereinigung der XI in April 1892 at Galerie Eduard Schulte (Werner Doede, in Berlin – Ort der Freiheit für die Kunst (1/6), (2/6), (3/6), (4/6), (5/6), (6/6), Neue Nationalgalerie, September 1960, preface 4). Back in Dresden in 1893 as professor at the ‘Königlich Sächsischen Technischen Hochschule’ four of his arhitecture students founded June 7, 1905 the famous artist group ‘Brücke’: Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.
   With this background and due to his talent it was not too difficult for Hildebrand Gurlitt to build up a network in favor of his new task as museum director with other art institution officials, art dealers, as well as with artists. His first exhibition in Zwickau October 1925 was the work of Max Pechstein (Zwickau 1881 – 1955 West-Berlin).
   His ambition to build up his connections must have been immense and not only related to his duties as museum director. This includes his eye for photography and the effort to proof his connoisseurship and instinct for artistic quality by building up a photography collection for Kurt Kirchbach, entrepreneur of automobile parts in Dresden. In sharp contrast to his art world activities was his struggle in the museum’s daily administrative life: The city parliament of Zwickau ended his contract as museum director in May 1929 with effect of April 1, 1930. This same month on May 18, 1929 opened Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in Stuttgart (until July 7) to which Gurlitt and Kirchbach traveled to discover new tendencies in contemporary photography. See below Beaumont Newhall’s comment.
   Not to forget to mention: The MoMA opened only one week after the ‘Black Tuesday’, followed by the 10-year ‘Great Depression’, on November 7, 1929 with Cézanne – Gauguin – Seurat – van Gogh, enjoying during the 4 weeks approx. 47.000 visitors.
   In a short period of time Hildebrand Gurlitt must have gathered a lot of information about contemporary photography and new currents. His possibilities to know what’s going on in the art world and in particular regarding photography may not be underestimated. For example the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo (NY) was showing in 1910 an International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography – Invitation Section (1/2), Open Section (2/2) with 37 photo artists in the ‘Invitation Section’. Only seven artists (Malcolm Arbuthnot, Walter Benington, Archibald Cochrane, Dudley J. Johnston, Frederick H. Pratt, Frank H. Read, Katharine Sheward Stanbery) are not present in the famous collection of Ernst Juhl (Hamburg 1850 – 1915 Hamburg), today part of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg and Kunstbibliothek Berlin – Photography Collection. See below Beaumont Newhall’s comment.

Comparing the two collections – Photography in the 20s and 30s

   The before said in mind the Kurt Kirchbach Collection organized and directed by Hildebrand Gurlitt becomes even more eminent and valuable as a testimony of its time.
   Unfortunately the list of artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection is not complete due to the turmoil in WWII. The artist-info list of 82 artists is based on the ‘Helene Anderson Collection’ catalog (Sotheby’s auction May 1997) and findings in one auction at Villa Grisebach, Berlin, 2005 and two auctions at Christie’s, London, in 2008. 5 A most intriguing question however remains: Which artists are missing to document in full the Kurt Kirchbach Collection? 6 
   The Thomas Walther Collection’s artist-info list includes 147 artists.

The first question: Which artists are part of both collections?

The Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) and the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) have only 28 artists in common which are highlighted in gray in the table below.
The artists in both collections are born before 1910, with the exception of 4 artists in the Thomas Walther Collection: Hajo Rose (1910 – 1989), Arthur Siegel (1913 – 1978), Stefan Themerson (1910 – 1988), Raoul Ubac (1910 – 1985).
More details on matches and mismatches below.

   The challenge to select photography for the collection must have been the same for both, Hildebrand Gurlitt and Kurt Kirchbach. Gurlitt was used to explore the œuvre of a painter or a sculptor by categories and image language. The same can be said for the art collector Kurt Kirchbach. Furthermore Kirchbach’s horizon and compass did include as well the fast industrial and technical development of the 20s and 30s, which was communicated and discussed through a flood of photographs. What they saw in Stuttgart in May 1929, the Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes exhibition and in Foto-Auge, the photography book by Frank Roh and Jan Tschichold, published parallel to Film und Foto span this range of imagery: Photography as an artist’s media and photography showing the world in its new industrial and social pace. To describe the role of photography in the 20s Herbert Molderings referred in 1978 to Alexander Rodtchenko (‘Ways of Contemporary Photography’; 1928): “It is as though only the camera were able to depict life as it is today.” 7 

‘Film und Foto’ and ‘Foto-Auge’

   Beaumont Newhall (Lynn, MA 1908 – 1993 Santa Fe, NM) became in 1940 under Alfred H. Barr the first curator of MoMA’s photography department. He organized in 1937 the retrospective Photography 1839–1937, in Sep-Nov 1938 American Photographs by Walker Evans, and in Dec 1940 – Jan 1941 together with Ansel Adams Sixty Photographs – A Survey of Camera Esthetics, a selection of MoMA’s photography collection acquired since its opening in 1929.
   In Karl Steinorth’s ‘Photographen der 20er Jahre’, 1979 8, Beaumont Newhall states in the preface: “The 1929 Stuttgart Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes exhibition was summarizing the development in photography of the past decade very similar to the International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography – Invitation Section (1/2), Open Section (2/2), at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo in November 1910.”
   Taking Newhall’s statement into account the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) includes 40 of the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart, the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) includes 42 of the 232 Stuttgart Film und Foto artists.
   Of the 40 and 42 artists both collections have only 19 of the ‘Film und Foto’ show artists in common (in total they have 28 artists in common): Florence Henri, André Kertész, Germaine Krull, Helmar Lerski, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, Lucia Móhóly, Walter Peterhans, Robert Petschow, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Aleksander Rodchenko, Werner Rohde, Cami Stone, Sasha Stone, Umbo, Dziga Vertov, Edward Weston, Yva, Willy Zielke.
   Regarding the photography book Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (total 82 – incomplete) includes 16 of the 56 photograph authors, the Thomas Walther Collection (total 147) includes also 16 of the 56 photograph authors, having in common 11: Hans Finsler, Florence Henri, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Walter Peterhans, Robert Petschow, Albert Renger-Patzsch, Sasha Stone, Umbo, Edward Weston.
   Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye includes 76 illustrated photographs by 56 “authors” (12 are anonymous), 35 of them are part of the ‘Film und Foto’ exhibition, 21 (of which are 8 anonymous) not. The advantage are the illustrations which are missing in the ‘Film und Foto’ catalog. The rather strange selection shows: Anything goes, photography is the sole media, a new and promising industry.
   To find out more on Franz Roh’s thoughts about photography his foreword for the exhibition Die neue Sachlichkeit in March/April 1927 at Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin provides some interesting details.

‘Fotografie der Gegenwart’, Essen

   A much better choice should not be overseen: Already in Jan – Feb 1929 the Folkwang Museum, Essen did show Fotografie der Gegenwart (later in 1929 shown at Kestner Gesellschaft, Hannover; Whitechapel Gallery, London; Kunstverein Frankfurt a.M.), a not less important photography exhibition!
   Of the 66 exhibited artists are 28 part of the Kirchbach Collection, and 24 are part of the Walther Collection. Of these 28 and 24 artists are 16 artists present in both collections.
   Still many decades after the early summer of 1929 Stuttgart’s ‘Film und Foto’ (232 artistst, of which artist-info know more than 6.140 exhibitions) is reffered to as the only true place to go to for photography of the Weimarer Republik era. Beaumont Newhall is not the only one. Regarding the shown artists our statistics reveal that Fotografie der Gegenwart (66 artists, of which artist-info knows more than 3.000 exhibitions) was the better place to go to for a collector.
   Comparing only the artists with 10 and more exhibitions between 1880 and 2017 of the 232 and 66 artists in artist-info database 2/3 (63%, 145) of the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart are below this margin of 10, whereas 2/3 (68%, 45) of the 66 artists shown in Essen had 10-427 exhibitions between 1880 and 2017, following artist-info database, and they are still important today for the art world.

Walker Evans

   The first exhibition of Walker Evans (St. Louis, MO 1903 – 1975 New Haven, CT) in New York was at John Becker Gallery in April 1931. Before he was already shown by his friend Lincoln Kirstein in Photography 1930 at the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art.  9  American Photographs by Walker Evans was the first one man show of a photographer to date at the MoMA in September 1938, if his show in the permanent architecture room in Nov-Dec 1933 of Nineteenth Century American Houses (gift of Lincoln Kirstein) is looked at as an only smaller spontaneous exhibit, concurrent with the Edward Hopper Retrospective and with Wilhlem Lehmbruck’s exhibit of Emporsteigender Jüngling (1913). 10 Thomas Mabry, Executive Director of the MoMA comments Evans’ exhibition in September 1938 by saying: ‘Although known and admired among a small group for ten years, Evans’ work has not received the recognition so far that has come to many of his contemporaries. In this exhibition the Museum hopes that a major photographic talent will be revealed to a wider public.” 11 
   Walker Evans did not show his work in Stuttgart in May 1929, was not present in the Foto-Auge book, but his photographs were shown in Munich, Das Lichtbild, Jun 5 – Sep 7, 1930, Münchener Bund and Verein Ausstellungspark München E.V., curator Josef M. Jurinek, and in Basel in Die neue Fotografie, Jan 11 – Feb 8, 1931, Gewerbemuseum Basel.
   Did Hildebrand Gurlitt and Kurt Kirchbach travel to Basel and Munich? Did they recognize Walker Evans and purchased his work for the collection? Is he part of still missed rest of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection? In contrary and because he was starting 50 years later Thomas Walther did include Walker Evans in his collection.

‘Photography 1930’

   One month before the first Bauhaus exhibition in December 1930 in the USA, Bauhaus: 1919-1923 Weimar / 1924 Dessau, which was at the same time its first retrospective, Lincoln Kirstein opened with his two partners John Walker III, and Edward M. M. Warburg at their Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Inc. in Cambridge (MA) on November 7, 1930 the Photography 1930 exhibition. More details on this important and influential avant-garde gallery in our blog post Blog post The Harvard Society for Contemporary Art – Exhibition Timeline and Artists 1929-1932. Lincoln Kirstein refers in the exhibition catalog’s ‘Introductory Note’ to Frank Roh’s and Jan Tschichold’s book Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye. The book was published on occasion of Film und Foto – Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes in Stuttgart in May 1929. Kirstein describes in his text the importance of “simple clarity in documentary form” and “the contemporary consciousness of time” the camera offers, but he wants to show as well with his selection of photo artists that the artistic use of the camera has reached a new quality, that of eqaul status with other contemporary arts. Although very well informed about the European art scene he focused on American photographers, among them his friend Walker Evans.

Photography besides other media

   Exciting to see photographs by Max Peiffer Watenphul and of Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart in the Kirchbach Collection.
   It apparently was important to Hildebrand Gurlitt to see photography not only as an isolated artist’s media but as a media concurrently with painting, drawings and prints in an artist’s œuvre.

‘Subjektive Fotografie’

   The Subjektive Fotografie – Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie exhibition in Saarbrücken in summer 1951, organized by Otto Steinert (among others with a text by Franz Roh: ‘The academic quarrel about photography’) with 148 artists shown in three sections, gave an important first overview after WWII on ‘neue Fotografie’ in the 20s and 30s. The exhibition defines ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ as the artistic domain, staying in the tradition of the ‘neue Fotografie’ of the 20s, in contrast to the ‘applied’ photography (product and documentary).
   The following 5 artists are part of the Kirchbach collection: Hans Finsler, Hans Grubenbecher, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Emmanuel Sougez.
   These 6 artists are part of the Walther collection: Herbert Bayer, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Hans Finsler, Man Ray, László Móhóly-Nagy, Luigi Veronesi.
   Although ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ wanted to commemorate the 20s and 30s and honoured Man Ray (1890 – 1976), László Móhóly-Nagy (1895 – 1946), and Herbert Bayer (1900 – 1985) with a special exhibition it is surprising that only 5 and 6 artists of the two collection were shown, including Man Ray, Móhóly-Nagy, and Bayer. Hans Grubenbecher had become professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg (HFBK), Hans Finsler did teach since 1932 at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Zürich.
   Edward Steichen, Director of the Photography Department, was aware of the situation when he commented his exhibition 50 Photographs by 50 Photographers – Landmarks in Photographic History mid 1948 at the MoMA by saying: “Painting has influenced photography for the past century. Today this Influence is a cause of dissatisfaction to many who are more interested jn probing the potentialities that, are peculiar to the photographic medium. Such conflict in concept and point of view is an invigorating stimulus to our younger photographers.” 12 Photo collages may therefore not be part of the ‘new vision’, as they already existed in painting and added the important possibility to a photograph to escape the ‘one exposure – one image’ limit a camera is bound to. At least nearly one third (23 of 76) of the 1929 Foto-Auge book are collage works.

Top 10

   The artists of both collections were shown in many exhibitions since the 20s and 30s. artist-info database knows for the Kurt Kirchbach Collection more than 2.880 and for the Thomas Walther Collection more than 5.780 solo- and group-exhibitions at galleries, museums and non-profit venues.
   As some artists were shown more often than others we compared the artists of both collections who are documented with more than 20 exhibitions in artist-info.
   The Kirchbach Collection counts 30 artists in this range (47% of all 82 artists), the Walther Collection counts 64 (44% of all 147 artists) in the range of more than 20 exhibitions. Of 30 artists of the Kirchbach Collection 22 are as well part of the Walther Collection, except 8 of them: Imogen Cunningham, Hugo Erfurth, Andreas Feininger, Hill & Adamson, Max Peiffer Watenphul, Arkady Shaikhet, Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart, Brett Weston.
   The Thomas Walther Collection does include in the range of 20 and more exhibitions 64 artists (22 in common with the Kirchbach Collection), all well known artists like Herbert Bayer, Bérénice Abbott, Constantin Brâncusi, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Walker Evans, Lyonnel Feininger, August Sander, Alfred Stieglitz, Charles Sheeler, Edward Steichen, Paul Strand, to note only a few.

Visualizing the numbers

   This diagram shows 8 exhibitions and an artist-info Top 10 statistics
Bar chart comparing the artists' exhibitions of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and Thomas Walther Collection
May-Jun 1927, Neue Reklame, Jenaer Kunstverein
Mar-May 1928, Neue Wege der Photographie, Jenaer Kunstverein
Jan-Feb 1929, Fotografie der Gegenwart, Museum Folkwang, Essen
   Regarding the 66 shown artists the two collections have many more artists in common with the exhibition at the Folkwang Museum than with ‘Film und Foto’ in Stuttgart in May 1929.
May-Jul 1929, Film und Foto, Stuttgart
   The diagram makes it obvious that the 232 artists shown in Stuttgart had very limited influence on the artists selected for the two collections.
May 1929, Foto-Auge | Œil et photo | Photo-Eye [influential Book] 
Jun-Sep 1930, Das Lichtbild, München
Nov 1930, Photography 1930, Cambridge (MA)
Jan-Feb 1931, Die neue Fotografie, Basel
Jul 1951, Subjektive Fotografie – Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie, Saarbrücken
Top 10 [artists with more than 20 exhibitions in artist-info] See previous paragraph.
Timeline Touring Exhibitions

Hildebrand Gurlitt on his exhibition in 1932, on the Kurt Kirchbach Collection, on Photography

   We would know more about the scope of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection if Hildebrand Gurlitt would have appended a list of the artists to his text in the invitation of his exhibition Internationale Foto-Ausstellung – Sammlung Kurt Kirchbach at the Kunstverein in Hamburg, in January 1932. A complete checklist of the shown prints would be even more compelling. But he did not, on purpose! 13 
   Hildebrand Gurlitt explains to the visitor in his text that this exhibition wants to document people’s unforeseeable addiction to consume images, due to the unique capability of photography to serve as a true imprint of everybody’s daily life, the industry, and the world, which photography has developed during the past 10 years. He explains that he wants to demonstrate with his exhibition the new photography as a mass phenomenon in which the individual artist’s profile is of no importance. Instead of providing a list of individual artists who incorporate with their masterworks the ‘new vision’, he provides a list of themes which build the easy to understand structure of the Kurt Kirchbach Collection and this exhibition, that photography is able to cover a universal basis: Berühmte Köpfe, Künstler, Frauen der Zeit, Männer der Zeit, Kinder, Tiere, Pflanzen, Hochgebirge, Wasser und Dünen, Landschaften, Stadt und Architektur, Flugaufnahmen, Industrie und Technik, Film, Stilleben, Wiedergaben des Stofflichen, Montagen, Fotogramme, Abstraktes, Tanz, Sport, Akte und Körperdetails, Reportagen. [Famous heads, artists, women of our time, men of our time, children, animals, plants, mountains, water and dunes, landscape, cityscape and architecture, aerial photography, industry and technique, film, still life, reproduction of material, montage, photograms, abstraction, dance, sports, nude and body details, news coverage].
   The collection aims to provide an overview from the beginnings of photography up to the present. He regrets this hasn’t been achieved so far as the collection was started only 2 years ago in 1929 and therefore is concentrating on contemporary and recent work. In contrary to the more recent work the prints from the early days of photography have already reached remarkably high prices. He is convinced that the contemporary photography will reach these higher prices in future time, near or far, as well.
   For Gurlitt the individual photography artist is much less important as for example in painting. Photography of his time, the ‘new photography’, is based on true craftsmanship. Even more important to him: The new photography is capable to capture the true life, face to face, the world with all its facets in which we are living today, points of view man on his two feet isn’t able to capture. It replaces any superficial salon painting or made up and retouched staged photography.
   For him, in photography creativity and master works arise not from the artist’s studio but from natural science and news reportage. His notion would apply perfectly well to Karl Blossfeldt who at the beginning in the 1890s was documenting flowers for educating purpose, as the exhibition Form Follows Flower – Moritz Meurer, Karl Blossfeldt & Co. at the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin reveals.
   In the early twenties and very much as part of the new era of photography and the ‘new vision’ he shows his flower prints as artwork in an exhibition in April 1926 at Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, entitled Exoten, Kakteen und Janthur – Plastiken aus Afrika und Neuginea und Pflanzenphotographien von Karl Blossfeldt.

Is the Kurt Kirchbach exhibition showing art?

   It is important to Hildebrand Gurlitt to ask this question in the invitational text and to give an answer: He accepts that photography may have the quality of ‘free’ art but may be with photograms very close to abstract painting or with photomontage close to constructivist or surrealist painting. However, for him the new quality photography incorporates not only reproducing the already visible, but that photography is able to visualize new, strong and impressive perspectives of and about the world, depending on the creativity of the one behind the camera. This is what he wants the visitor of the Kurt Kirchbach exhibition to recognize.

Unframing the world

   Hildebrand Gurlitt must have been aware of what Edward Steichen said in summer 1948 (see above ‘Subjektive Fotografie’ last chapter): Where does photography parallel painting and drawing, where does it develop its own language? ‘Film und Foto’ in Stuttgart apparently wanted to encompass everything of today’s life, leaving painting behind, unframing the world, with the danger of getting lost.
   Like already mentioned above for the collection of Pictorial Photography by Ernst Juhl in Hamburg the international exchange shuoldn’t be underestimated. Film und Foto in Stuttgart in 1929 had its precursors in the An International Exhibition of Modern Art Assembled by the Société Anonyme, Nov 1926 – Jan 1927 at the Brooklyn Museum, and the Machine-Age Exposition, May 1927, at the Steinway Hall on 57th Street, organized by Jane Heap. Regarding the impact of these major events on photography Maria Morris Hambourg said: “This extraordinary exhibition [Machine-Age Exposition] demonstrated in New York what had long been clear at the Bauhaus: Modern art, modern design, and modern life were of a piece, and the machine was the principal agent and symbol of the modern condition. This understanding would give photography, then considered an eexemplary machine age art, wider appreciaton in the 1930s.” 14 
   Trained in the field of painting and drawing Hildebrand Gurlitt was able to not fall for Stuttgart’s line and looked for Kurt Kirchbach’s Collection for photography using a language in its own right. Not only Fotografie der Gegenwart in Essen in January 1929 was a more selective approach. Already Walter Dexel’s (the artist, the curator) exhibitions at the Kunstverein Jena, Neue Sachlichkeit (May 1926), Neue Reklame (May 1927), and Neue Wege der Photographie (Mar 1928) were important markers and stand for the positive side of unframing the world, with the means photography and a ‘new vision’.
   More than 50 years later Thomas Walther could embrace many new and in depth findings, for example Frank Van Deren Coke’s exhibition Avant-Garde Photography in Germany 1919–1939 at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, in Dec 1980.

The artists of the Kurt Kirchbach Sammlung and the Thomas Walther Collection

Kurt Kirchbach Collection
[incomplete artist list]   Updated January 7, 2018
(Exh.)Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection, 1909–1949
MoMA, December 13, 2014 – April 19, 2015
[28 artists in both collections]
1Ballé, Oskar [Rapid Foto Ballé] (2)1Abbott, Bérénice (1898 - 1991)(103)
2Biermann, Aenne Sternefeld (1898 - 1933)(35)2Álvarez-Bravo, Manuel (1902 - 2002)(72)
3Block, Fritz (1889 - 1955)(5)3Arndt, Gertrud (1903 - 2000)(10)
4Blossfeldt, Karl (1865 - 1932)(64)4Bauh, Aurel (1900 - 1964)(4)
5Bosshard, Walter (1892 - 1975)(5)5Bayer, Herbert (1900 - 1985)(106)
6Burchartz, Max (1887 - 1961)(50)6Bayer-Hecht, Irene (1898 - 1991)(3)
7Citroën, Paul (1896 - 1983)(31)7Beese, Lotte [Charlotte] (1903 - 1988)(9)
8Cunningham, Imogen (1883 - 1976)(57)8Biermann, Aenne Sternefeld (1898 - 1933)(35)
9Dörner, Erhard (1888 - 1930)(6)9Blanc & Demilly, [Théodore Blanc 1898-1985 & Antoine Demilly 1862-1964] (7)
10Dowschenko, Oleksandr Petrowytsch (1894 - 1956)(3)10Blanc, Georges (1)
11Erfurth, Hugo (1874 - 1948)(36)11Blossfeldt, Karl (1865 - 1932)(64)
12Feininger, Andreas (1906 - 1999)(54)12Boiffard, Jacques-André (1903 - 1961)(12)
13Feist, Werner David (1909 - 1998)(13)13Bourke-White, Margaret (1904 - 1971)(59)
14Fiedler, Franz (1885 - 1956)(12)14Bragaglia, Antonio Giulio (1890 - 1960)(14)
15Finsler, Hans (1891 - 1972)(38)15Bragaglia, Arturo (1893 - 1962)(5)
16Flachslander, F. A. (8)16Brâncusi, Constantin (1876 - 1957)(149)
17Fliptikow (1)17Brandt, Bill (1904 - 1983)(63)
18Globophot Pressedienst, (1)18Breslauer, Marianne (1909 - 2001)(15)
19Gorny, Hein (1904 - 1967)(14)19Brigman, Anne Wardrope (1869 - 1950)(14)
20Gos, Emile (1888 - 1969)(1)20Brown, Gertrude LeRoy (1870 - 1934)(2)
21Graf, Johann (6)21Bruehl, Anton (1900 - 1982)(16)
22Gramm, Josef (*1878)(6)22Bruguière, Francis Joseph (1879 - 1945)(33)
23Grubenbecher, Hans (1913 - 1952)(2)23Bull, Clarence Sinclair (1896 - 1979)(3)
24Gutschow, Arvid (1900 - 1984)(9)24Burchartz, Max (1887 - 1961)(50)
25Gyger, Emauel (1886 - 1951)(2)25Cahun, Claude [Lucy Schwob] (1894 - 1954)(44)
26Hausmann, Raoul (1886 - 1971)(103)26Cartier-Bresson, Henri (1908 - 2004)(162)
27Heise, Hildegard (1909 - 1993)(3)27Citroën, Paul (1896 - 1983)(31)
28Henle, Fritz (1909 - 1993)(10)28Coburn, Alvin Langdon (1882 - 1966)(38)
29Henri, Florence (1893 - 1982)(71)29Collein, Edmund (1906 - 1992)(8)
30Hill & Adamson, [David Octavius Hill 1804-1870 & Robert Adamson 1821-1989] (24)30Comeriner, Erich (1907 - 1978)(19)
31Hirschel-Protsch, Günter (1902 - 1938)(6)31Content, Marjorie (1895 - 1984)(1)
32Hoinkis, Ewald (1897 - 1960)(15)32Coppola, Horacio (1906 - 2012)(11)
33Hoppé, Emil Otto (1878 - 1972)(14)33Crawford, Ralston (1906 - 1975)(34)
34Jeck, Lothar (1898 - 1983)(2)34Demachy, Robert (1859 - 1936)(11)
35Jentzsch, W. (1)35Domela, César Nieuwenhuis (1900 - 1992)(79)
36Kertész, André (1894 - 1985)(130)36Evans, Walker (1903 - 1975)(155)
37Kessler, Rudolf (1)37Feininger, Lore (1901 - 1991)(4)
38Koch, Heinrich (1896 - 1934)(3)38Feininger, Lyonel (1871 - 1956)(268)
39Koehn, Henry (1892 - 1963)(1)39Finsler, Hans (1891 - 1972)(38)
40Kratzenstein, Eduard (3)40Fridlyand, Semyon Osipovic (1905 - 1964)(11)
41Krause, Erich (2)41Funke, Jaromír (1896 - 1945)(18)
42Krull, Germaine (1897 - 1985)(46)42Grill, Karl (1889 - 1966)(1)
43Lerski, Helmar [Israel Schmuklerski] (1871 - 1956)(28)43Gutmann, John (1905 - 1988)(14)
44Lissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)(225)44Hackenschmied [Hammid], Alexander (1907 - 2004)(7)
45Man Ray, [Emmanuel Rudinski] (1890 - 1976)(429)45Hagemeyer, Johan (1884 - 1962)(4)
46Man, Felix H. [Hans Felix Sigismund Baumann] (1893 - 1985)(21)46Hahn, Paul Edmund (1897 - 1960)(2)
47Merlo (1)47Hatláková, Jaroslava (1904 - 1989)(5)
48Mikalina (1)48Hausmann, Raoul (1886 - 1971)(103)
49Móhóly, Lucia (1900 - 1989)(41)49Heins, John P. (1896 - 1969)(1)
50Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946)(344)50Henri, Florence (1893 - 1982)(71)
51Moral, Jean (1906 - 1999)(13)51Hirz, J. Jay (1)
52Neudatschin [Neudin], S. [Weltrundschau-Neudatschin] (3)52Hoffmann, Irene (1903 - 1971)(4)
53Peiffer Watenphul, Max (1896 - 1976)(39)53Horne, Bernard Shea (1867 - 1933)(2)
54Peterhans, Walter A. (1897 - 1960)(30)54Hoyningen-Huené, George (1900 - 1968)(16)
55Petschow, Robert (1888 - 1945)(13)55Jacobi, Lotte Johanna (1896 - 1990)(34)
56Photo Risch-Lau Bregenz (1)56Juley, Peter A. (1862 - 1937)(1)
57Presse-Photo G.M.B.H. (3)57Karmen, Roman Lasarewitsch (1906 - 1978)(4)
58Renger-Patzsch, Albert (1897 - 1966)(96)58Kepes, György (1906 - 2001)(44)
59Rodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)(195)59Kerny, István (1879 - 1963)(2)
60Rohde, Werner (1906 - 1990)(18)60Kertész, André (1894 - 1985)(130)
61Rudolph, Charlotte (1896 - 1983)(12)61Kesting, Edmund (1892 - 1970)(47)
62Scheel, Ernst (1903 - 1986)(1)62Kinszki, Imre (1901 - 1945)(2)
63Schieron, Richard (*1905)(4)63Klutsis, Gustav Gustavowitsch (1895 - 1938)(78)
64Schuitema, Paul (1897 - 1973)(13)64Korth, Fred G. (1902 - 1983)(3)
65Shaikhet [Chaïkhet], Arkady Samoylovich (1898 - 1959)(28)65Kreyenkamp, August (1875 - 1950)(8)
66Sougez, Emmanuel (1889 - 1972)(18)66Krull, Germaine (1897 - 1985)(46)
67Stone, Cami [Camille] (1892 - 1975)(8)67Lachman, Harry B. (1886 - 1975)(2)
68Stone, Sasha [Aleksander Serge Steinsapir] (1895 - 1940)(27)68Latimer, Walter R. (1880 - 1924)(2)
69Umbo, [Otto Umbehr] (1902 - 1980)(50)69Lehovec, Ji?í (1909 - 1995)(2)
70Vertov, Dziga [Denis Arkadjewitsch Kaufman] (1896 - 1954)(22)70Lerski, Helmar [Israel Schmuklerski] (1871 - 1956)(28)
71Vogel, Alfred (1)71Lindemann, Elisabeth (1879 - 1960)(1)
72Vordemberge-Gildewart, Friedrich (1899 - 1962)(109)72Lindig, Otto (1895 - 1966)(6)
73Wasow, Edmund (1879 - 1944)(7)73Lissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)(225)
74Wegener, Bettina (1)74List, Herbert (1903 - 1975)(60)
75Weller, Peter [Dr.] (*1897)(8)75Loew, Heinz (1903 - 1981)(11)
76West, Eugen (1)76Lotar, Éli [Eliazar Lotar Teodorescu] (1905 - 1969)(25)
77Weston, Brett (1911 - 1993)(43)77Lynes, George Platt (1907 - 1955)(23)
78Weston, Edward (1886 - 1958)(122)78Man Ray, [Emmanuel Rudinski] (1890 - 1976)(429)
79Weymar, Bettina (1)79Man, Felix H. [Hans Felix Sigismund Baumann] (1893 - 1985)(21)
80Windisch, Hans (1902 - 1970)(5)80Mantz, Werner (1901 - 1983)(24)
81Yva, [Else Ernestine Neuländer-Simon] (1900 - 1942)(19)81Meyer, Hannes [Hans Emil] (1889 - 1954)(11)
82Zielke, Willy Otto (1902 - 1989)(16)82Miller [Lady Penrose], Lee [Elizabeth] (1907 - 1977)(43)
83Model, Lisette (1901 - 1983)(41)
84Modotti, Tina (1896 - 1942)(41)
85Móhóly, Lucia (1900 - 1989)(41)
86Móhóly-Nagy, László (1895 - 1946)(344)
87Moore, Marcel [Suzanne Malherbe] (1892 - 1972)(1)
88Moral, Jean (1906 - 1999)(13)
89Muche, Georg (1895 - 1987)(58)
90Munkácsi, Martin (1896 - 1963)(22)
91Navara, Adolf (1)
92Nerlinger [R. Nilgreen], Oskar (1893 - 1969)(46)
93Niegeman, Johan (1902 - 1977)(4)
94Painlevé, Jean (1902 - 1989)(10)
95Pap, Gyula (1899 - 1983)(9)
96Parker, Paul (1)
97Parry, Roger (1905 - 1977)(16)
98Pécsi, József (1889 - 1956)(4)
99Penson, Max (1893 - 1959)(8)
100Peterhans, Walter A. (1897 - 1960)(30)
101Petschow, Robert (1888 - 1945)(13)
102Quigley, Edward W. (1898 - 1977)(4)
103Renger-Patzsch, Albert (1897 - 1966)(96)
104Richter, Hans (1888 - 1976)(85)
105Riefenstahl, Leni (1902 - 2003)(17)
106Riess, Frieda Gertrud (1890 - 1955)(10)
107Rodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)(195)
108Roh, Franz (1890 - 1965)(35)
109Rohde, Werner (1906 - 1990)(18)
110Rose, Hajo [Hans-Joachim] (1910 - 1989)(8)
111Rössler, Jaroslav (1902 - 1990)(17)
112Roszak, Theodore J. (1907 - 1981)(46)
113Rudomine, Albert (1892 - 1975)(3)
114Ruge, Willi (1882 - 1961)(2)
115Salomon, Erich (1886 - 1944)(19)
116Sander, August (1876 - 1964)(143)
117Seeley, George Henry (1880 - 1955)(10)
118Seidenstücker, Friedrich (1882 - 1966)(20)
119Sekaer, Peter [Peter Ingemann Sekjær] (1901 - 1950)(9)
120Sheeler, Charles R. (1883 - 1965)(97)
121Shiihara, Osamu (1905 - 1974)(8)
122Siegel, Arthur (1913 - 1978)(17)
123Steichen, Edward Jean (1879 - 1973)(99)
124Steinitz, Käte Traumann (1889 - 1975)(15)
125Stieglitz, Alfred (1864 - 1946)(119)
126Stone, Cami [Camille] (1892 - 1975)(8)
127Stone, Sasha [Aleksander Serge Steinsapir] (1895 - 1940)(27)
128Strand, Paul (1890 - 1976)(90)
129Štyrský, Jind?ich (1899 - 1942)(35)
130Tabard, Maurice (1897 - 1984)(31)
131Themerson, Franciska (1907 - 1988)(19)
132Themerson, Stefan (1910 - 1988)(17)
133Ubac, Raoul (Rolf Ubach) (1910 - 1985)(56)
134Umbo, [Otto Umbehr] (1902 - 1980)(50)
135Vechten, Carl van (1880 - 1964)(8)
136Veronesi, Luigi (1908 - 1998)(80)
137Vertov, Dziga [Denis Arkadjewitsch Kaufman] (1896 - 1954)(22)
138Vobecký, František (1902 - 1991)(4)
139Walser, Andreas (1908 - 1930)(2)
140Weegee, [Arthur Fellig] (1899 - 1968)(68)
141Weston, Edward (1886 - 1958)(122)
142Witkiewicz [Witkacy], Stanis?aw Ignacy (1885 - 1939)(20)
143Wulz, Wanda (1903 - 1984)(5)
144Yamawaki, Iwao (1898 - 1987)(13)
145Yva, [Else Ernestine Neuländer-Simon] (1900 - 1942)(19)
146Zielke, Willy Otto (1902 - 1989)(16)
147Zimin, Georgij (1901 - 1985)(11)
Source: artist-info
About documenting exhibitions 1880 to present see

Selection of photography exhibitions until 1950

each with all participating artists

2014This exhibition on Modern Photographs from the Thomas Walther Collection - 1909–1949
Dec 2014 - Apr 2015, Museum of Modern Art, New York
43 of 147 artists in common with the Ford Motor Company Collection / John C. Waddell Collection (70 artists)
28 of 147 artists in common with the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (82 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
1989This exhibition on The New Vision - Photography Between the World Wars, Ford Motor Company Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art - The John C. Waddell Collection
Sep - Dec 1989, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
43 of 70 artists in common with the Thomas Walther Collection (147 artists)
13 of 70 artists in common with the Kurt Kirchbach Collection (82 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
This exhibition on Kunstphotographie um 1900 - Die Sammlung Ernst Juhl
Jun - Aug 1989, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg
1964This exhibition on Kunstphotographie um 1900
Mar - Apr 1964, Museum Folkwang, Essen
1951This exhibition on Subjektive Fotografie - Internationale Ausstellung moderner Fotografie
Jul 1951, Staatliche Schule für Kunst und Handwerk, Saarbrücken
1948This exhibition on 50 Photographs by 50 Photographers
- Landmarks in Photographic History

Jul - Sep 1948, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1946This exhibition on Fotomontage von dada bis heute
Dec 1946, Galerie Gerd Rosen, Berlin
1943This exhibition on Form and Formula
Mar - Apr 1943, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati
This exhibition on Action Photography
Aug - Sep 1941, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1940This exhibition on Sixty Photographs - A Survey of Camera Esthetics
Dec 1940 - Jan 1941, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1939This exhibition on Art in Our Time: 10th Anniversary Exhibition - Photography Section
May - Sep 1939, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
This exhibition on Group of 53 Photographs by Photographers from West Coast Acquired
Apr 1939, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1938This exhibition on Walker Evans - American Photographs
Sep - Nov 1938, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1937This exhibition on Entartete Kunst
Jul 1937 - Nov 1937, Münchner Hofgarten - 'Entartete Kunst', München
This exhibition on Photography 1839-1937
Mar - Apr 1938, Museum of Modern Art - MoMA, New York
1933This exhibition on Entartete Kunst
Sep - Nov 1933, Neues Rathaus - 'Entartete Kunst', Dresden
1932This exhibition on Exhibition of Portrait Gallery
Oct - Nov 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Hugo Erfurth - Photographische Künstlerbildnisse
Sep - Dec 1932, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
This exhibition on Photographs of New York by New York Photographers
May - Jun 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Modern European Photography
Feb - Mar 1932, Julien Levy Gallery, New York
This exhibition on Internationale Foto-Ausstellung - Sammlung Kurt Kirchbach [incomplete artist list]
Jan - Feb 1932, Kunstverein in Hamburg, Hamburg
13 of 82 artists in common with the Ford Motor Company Collection / John C. Waddell Collection (70 artists)
28 of 82 artists in common with the Thomas Walther Collection (147 artists)
12 artists in all three collections: R. Hausmann, F. Henri, A. Kertész, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, L. Móhóly, L. Móhóly-Nagy, R. Petschow, A. Renger-Patzsch, A. Rodchenko, Umbo, E. Weston
1931This exhibition on Fotomontage
Apr - May 1931, Lichthof des ehemaligen Kunstgewerbemuseums [today Martin-Gropius-Bau], Berlin
This exhibition on Die neue Fotografie
Jan - Feb 1931, Gewerbemuseum [today: Museum für Gestaltung], Basel
1930This exhibition on Photography 1930
Nov 1930, Harvard Society for Contemporary Art, Cambridge (MA) Blog post See as well our survey on the exhibition history of the Harvard Society for Contemporary Art.
This exhibition on Das Lichtbild
Jun - Sep 1930, Verein Ausstellungspark München, München
This exhibition on Gezeichnet oder geknipst?
Mar - Apr 1930, Frankfurter Kunstverein - FKV, Frankfurt am Main
1929This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jul - Aug 1929, Frankfurter Kunstverein - FKV, Frankfurt am Main
This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jun 1929, Whitechapel Gallery, London
This exhibition on Foto-Auge [Influential Book]
May - Jul 1929, Ausstellungshallen auf dem Interimtheaterplatz, Stuttgart
This exhibition on Film und Foto - Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbundes
May - Jul 1929, Ausstellungshallen auf dem Interimtheaterplatz, Stuttgart
This exhibition on Fotografie der Gegenwart
Jan - Feb 1929, Museum Folkwang, Essen
1928This exhibition on Neue Wege der Photographie - Porträts, Naturaufnahmen, Fliegeraufnahmen, Wissenschaftliche Aufnahmen, Filmphotos, Photomontage, Reklamephotos
Mar - May 1928, Jenaer Kunstverein, Jena
1927This exhibition on Neue Reklame
May - Jun 1927, Jenaer Kunstverein, Jena
1923This exhibition on Große Berliner Kunstausstellung 1923 - GBK (2/2) - Novembergruppe (Landes-Ausstellungsgebäude Lehrter Bahnhof)
May - Sep 1923, Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung - GBK, Berlin
This exhibition on 55 | El Lissitzky - Max Burchartz
Jan - Feb 1923, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
1918This exhibition on Sculpture by Mrs. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whiney - Pictorial Photographs by American Artists (Auspices of Camera Club of Detroit and the Detroit Museum of Art)
Jan 1918, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit
1910This exhibition on International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography - Invitation Section
Nov - Dec 1910, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
This exhibition on International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography - Openn Section
Nov - Dec 1910, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
1905This exhibition on Internationale Ausstellung Kunstphotographischer Meisterwerke
Oct 1905, Kunsthalle Bremen
1904This exhibition on Salon d'Automne 1904 - 2ième Exposition (11/11) Photographie
Oct 1904, Grand Palais, Paris

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WWI: France and Germany using art as weapon of peace – not war

Artists / Exhibition History / History / Research

Courtesy Hamburger Kunsthalle Library, Städel Museum Library, for the 1917 catalog J. E. Wolfensberger AG, Zürich

WWI: France and Germany using art as weapon of peace – not war

The NZZ-Neue Züricher Zeitung published November 13, 2017 an article written by Robin Schwarzenbach: ‘Deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [German Culture Used as Weapon].

The article describes how during World War I newspapers, cinema and theater programs, and art-exhibitions in Switzerland were used by France and by Germany for propaganda, as an extended battle field, facilitated by Switzerland’s different region’s languages.
Following the article’s content leads to the question why the title ‘Deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [German Culture Used as Weapon] isn’t more accurate, as it describes a ping pong of activities, and exhibitions by both nations, France and Germany.
Why doesn’t it therefore read ‘Französische und deutsche Kultur als Waffe’ [French and German Culture Used as Weapon]?
To remember the historical context: November 11, 2017 marks the centenary of the end of WWI.
World War I (28.07.1914 – 11.11.1918) is subject to ongoing research about how it influences history of the following decades, in particular its possible influence on the genesis of World War II (01.09.1939 – 1945).

Art-exhibitions are weapons enabling peace – not weapons of war

In contrary to NZZ’s findings French and German art-exhibitions were used as weapon of peace, not of war!
Following Robin Schwarzenbach’s text the German cultural and art-exhibition activities in Switzerland were organized by Harry Graf von Kessler (Paris 23.05.1868 – 30.11.1937 Lyon), with office in Bern for this task.

Unfortunately Robin Schwarzenbach is focusing much on the Wehrmacht past of Count Kessler and thus missing a most important statement of historical dimension related to art-exhibitions by France and Germany during World War I in Switzerland.
Théodore Duret (Saintes 20.01.1838 – 16.01.1927 Paris) writes in his foreword of the exhibition catalog Ausstellung Französischer Malerei, 29.10. – 26. 11.1916, Museum / Kunstverein Winterthur:
"Que cette exposition en pays neutre, sur le sol hospitalier de la Suisse, soit la bienvenue! Puisse-t-elle aider à rapprocher un instant, sur le terrain de l’art, des hommes ennemis sur un autre terrain et à leur faire quelque peu oublier les horreurs du temps présent. / Paris, Octobre 1916".
["Would this exhibition hopefully be welcomed in a neutral country on the hospitable grounds of Switzerland. Would it contribute, at least for a moment, in the area of art to get people together again, who fight against each other in other areas, and would it make forget a little the fright of this period of time."]
One year later Emil Waldmann (Bremen 1880 – 1945 Würzburg, director of Kunsthalle Bremen from 1914 onwards) is quoting literally Théodore Duret in his introduction for the exhibition catalog Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert, 19.08. – 23.09.1917, Kunsthaus Zürich:
"Möge diese Ausstellung in neutralen Landen auf dem gastlichen Boden der Schweiz willkommen geheissen werden. Möge sie dazu mithelfen, für einen Augenblick wenigstens, auf dem Gebiet der Kunst Menschen einander wieder näher zu bringen, die sich auf anderen Gebieten jetzt bekämpfen, und möchte sie die Schrecken der gegenwärtigen Zeitläufte ein wenig vergessen machen." See at top this text in the original catalog.
The Kunsthaus Zürich did show two weeks later Französische Kunst des XIX. und XX. Jahrhunderts, 05.10. – 14.11.1917; with 25 artists in the section Meister des XIX. Jahrhunderts, and 69 artists in the section Mitglieder des Salon d’Automne, Paris.

The Artists

Ausstellung Französischer Malerei (1916) and Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert (1917) is documenting the artists shown in art-exhibitions at galleries, museums, non-profit and collector’s venues, including curators, from 1880 up to the present, worldwide. Read more on our focus on
The 48 artists in the exhibition of French Painting at the Kunstmuseum Winterthur in 1916 are documented here Ausstellung Französischer Malerei.
Among the shown artists were Pierre Bonnard (1867 – 1947), Paul Cézanne (1839 – 1906), Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917), Paul Gauguin (1848 – 1903), Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890), Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954), Claude Monet (1840 – 1926), Auguste Renoir (1841 – 1919), and Auguste Rodin (1840 – 1917).
The 36 artists in the exhibition of German Painting at Kunsthaus Zürich in 1917 are documented here Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert.
Harry Graf von Kessler was well connected and knew about the recent and upcoming currents in the arts. The selection of artists in 1917 in Zürich includes for the 19th century among others Adrian Ludwig Richter (1803 – 1884) and Carl Spitzweg (1808 – 1885), and for the 20th century among others Franz Marc (1880 – 1916), Erich Heckel (1883 – 1970), Max Beckmann (1884 – 1950), Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884 – 1976), Oscar Kokoschka (1886 – 1980), August Macke (1887 – 1914).

Missing Wassily Kandinsky?

Which artists to include in the 1917 German Painting exhibition at Kunsthaus Zürich must have been a most difficult task for Harry Graf von Kessler who certainly knew about the important new currents in particular in German art. How to show traditional and futurist artists together in a period of profound diversity?
In 1917 Russian history is marked by the February Revolution and the October Revolution with groundbreaking influence to the art scene. Kandinsky took part in the Knave of Diamonds / Jack of Diamonds / Valet de Carreau exhibitions in 1910 and 1912, one of the most significant exhibition societies of the early Russian avant-garde. Already in On December 3, 1913 Kazimir Malevich (1878 – 1935) did use the first time the Black Square for a theater decoration in St. Petersburg, the Cubo-Futurist opera, ‘Victory Over the Sun’, his first Suprematist statement. He was showing it the first time in the exhibition 0,10 – The Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings at Art Bureau – Nadezhda Dobychina in Saint Petersburg.
In the 1917 exhibition Harry Graf von Kessler did show Kandinsky’s (1866 – 1944) teacher, Franz von Stuck (1863 – 1928) and his companion Franz Marc with whom Kandinsky organized the first exhibition of the Blaue Reiter at Galerie Thannhauser, Munich, December 18, 1911, including August Macke (1887 – 1914), as well part of the first Blaue Reiter exhibition.
Before WWI broke out Kandinsky was exhibiting already internationally, including the 1913 Armory Show in New York, International Exhibition of Modern Art.
On April 1, 1914 Germany declared war to Russia. Kandinsky fled with Gabriele Münter from Munich to Switzerland and in November 1914 to Russia.
A first, most far-reaching statement for the new currents in art was the influential Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 (read our blog post  Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists) and 14 years later Alfred H. Barr‘s eminent retrospective exhibition at the MoMA, New York, Cubism and Abstract Art, Mar 3 – Apr 10, 1936, followed one year later by Entartete Kunst, Jul – Nov 1937, Münchner Hofgarten Arkaden, banning un-German and degenerated artists.
More influential exhibitions in our blog post  Influential Contemporary Art Exhibitions in the 20th and 21st Century.

Art is no weapon at all, has no fire range to kill people

In contrary, art is a peace-maker and reunites people, as the French and the German statements for the catalog of Ausstellung Französischer Malerei, 29.10.-26. 11.1916, Museum / Kunstverein Winterthur and of Ausstellung Deutscher Malerei XIX. und XX. Jahrhundert, 19.08. 1917 – 23.09.1917, Kunsthaus Zürich demonstrate.

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Share this on – Online Reference and Index for artists, exhibition venues, and curators built on exhibition information of many decades

Analytics / Artists / Collector / Curators / Gallery / Museum / Non-Profit Place / Reference source / Research
Exhibition information as reference – Online Reference and Index for artists, exhibition venues, and curators built on exhibition information of many decades

To be part of the top 100 artists or exhibition venues is nice because everybody knows them.
But what about all others: Not only of the past few years, as well as for the past 120 years?
How to find them, and additional information on them?

Exhibition Information: Reference and Index

  Exhibitions and their published details are very much like a footprint a secure source.
Documenting this information from 1890 up to the present for artists, exhibition venues and curators alike, and making it searchable online with helps
A  To allocate and verify an artist and the artist’s identity across continents and decades, including alias names.
B  To find additional information on the artwork.
C  By digitizing the artists of an exhibition catalog provides for library and archive holdings worldwide the missing artist keyword index in their catalogs.
D  To find related content inside exhibition catalogs for details and valuable reviews on the artist’s work and profile in comparison to other artists, and the exhibition’s focus.
E  To find related information through the exhibition history, like e.g. all participants of a group exhibition.
F  To find information on the exhibition venue’s exhibition history and profile.
G  Authority information / related knowledge sources: is adding whenever possible to the profile of an artist, an exhibition venue, and a curator a link to their Wikipedia page and a link to their WorldCat-identity (based on VIAF or LCCN), or VIAF identity (Virtual International Authority File) page.

  To search an artist on and to find the artist’s documented exhibitions is a secure reference and starting point for research on artists, on curators, and on exhibition venues alike through the cross-linked information on
  In addition the documented exhibition information on offers much more than only finding an artist. The overview on group exhibitions and the participating artists, their exhibition history as well as the exhibition history of the gallery, museum or non-profit venue provides additional insight and helps to explore, analyze, discover, and develop.
  The success of an artist as well as of an exhibition venue is built on many years of hard work. You should revalue this effort by documenting it professionally online. Art professionals, academics, the press, curators, artists, galleries, museums, collectors and art lovers research on because it saves time through its unique structure.

Index for exhibition catalogs

  Looking up an exhibition catalog in a library or a bookshop will only work through the title and may be through the curator’s or the text author’s name. You will never find the complete list of all artists participating in a group exhibition, although it is important information for you and your research.
  Exhibitions documented with and like this searchable for the exhibition venue name, exhibition title and subtitle, the artists and curators are an important additional dimension to the existing artist CV or exhibition venue’s exhibition archive on their website. In most cases they only provide limited scope of information and time span.

‘All Exhibitions Update’

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Dreier Bequest Artist Update – G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer

Artists / Exhibition History / Gallery / History / Museum / Research
G.M. - Gerd Meyer

Dreier Bequest Artist Update – G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer

G M - Gerd MeyerGerd Meyer, signing with G M
(Oldenburg 1894 – 1987 Delmenhorst)
Also known as: Georg Bernhard Meyer; Gerd Meyer-Helldiek; Gert Meier; Gert Meyer

  The catalog raisonné of the Dreier Bequest at Yale University mentions an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston [YSA 51], 06.09.–02.10.1949, showing among the 50 artists as well the work of G.M. (Georg Meyer?). See exhibitions list below.
  The text about the artist G.M. (Georg Meyer?) in the catalog raisonné states that Katherine Sophie Dreier bought seven watercolors of this artist in Bremen in 1930 from the ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’. It is a correction of her notice in the 1950 catalogue, where Galerie Linne, Bremen, is mentioned as source.
  The artist G.M. (Georg Meyer?) is Gerd Meyer, born in Oldenburg on November 28, 1894. He became citizen of Bremen June 11, 1920. He died in Delmenhorst August 29, 1987. [Jürgen Weichardt: Biographie von Georg Bernhard (Gerd) Meyer; in: Biographisches Handbuch zur Geschichte des Landes Oldenburg; Ed. Hans Friedl, et al; Oldenburg 1992, ISBN 3-89442-135-5, page 456-457]

Gerd Meyer in ‘Thieme/Becker & Hans Vollmer’

  Following the kind notice of Kevin Fickert (Library Kunsthalle Bremen, contact through Bettina Brach, Weserburg | Museum für moderne Kunst, Bremen) the artist G. M., active in Bremen, is listed in ‘Thieme/Becker-Hans Vollmer Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Jahrhunderts’, Leipzig 1956, vol. 3, p. 382 (Verlag E.A. Seemann, Leipzig, 1999) as Gerd Meyer:
Meyer, Gerd, dtsch. Maler, *28.11.1894 Oldenburg i.O., ansässig in Bremen.
Stud. Bei R. tom Diek [Richard tom Dieck] in Oldenburg. Hauptsächl. Stilleben u. Landschaften. Begann als Impressionist, später abstrakt. Im Folkwang-Mus. Essen: Vorfrühling in Achterdiek. Koll.Ausst. 1924 in der Kestner-Ges. Hannover. Lit.: Dreßler [Willy Oskar Dressler]. – D. Bild (Karlsr.), 4 (1934) 318ff., m. Abb. – D. Cicerone, 16, (1924) 469.”

  For the Kestner-Gesellschaft group exhibition in March 1924 see below the exhibition history details of Gerd Meyer.

About Galerie Linne / Linne, Ziegert & Co., Bremen

  According to the catalog raisonné (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455) Katherine Dreier says she bought the seven watercolors in 1930 from a young man with the name Linne, who had opened a small gallery for watercolors, sketches, and graphic art.
  Only the Bremen 1924 registry knows a ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’, Kunst- und Buchhandlung, owned by Ferdinand Adolph Linne and Otto Erich Ziegert & Co. (no details on ‘Co.’ partners), Kohlhökerstraße 14, Bremen. The gallery closes for good September 30, 1924.
  Ferdinand Adolph Linne (Bremen *26.04.1876; until December 1925 Adolf, thereafter Adolph) is part of the Bremen citizen registry in 1922/23–1927, 1929, and 1930 as artist painter (Kunstmaler) at changing addresses. He is the son of Wilhelmine Linne, born Wagener and the merchant Hermann Heinrich Linne. The registry knows Linne always as Linne, not as Linné. ‘Linzie’, mentioned in the catalog raisonné (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455), was the telegraph address used bei ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’.
  Adolf Linne participated with 83 other artists in June 1912 in the exhibition This exhibition on Ausstellung zu Ehren von Geh. Hofrat Prof. Eugen Bracht, at Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden, at This exhibition on Bremische Kunstausstellung, at Kunsthalle Bremen, 30.11.1912–January 1913, together with 149 other artists, and from 01.02.–31.03.1914 This exhibition on Internationale Ausstellung in der Kunsthalle Bremen 1914 with 196 other artists. He was showing 2 oil paintings (‘Abendsonne, Rügen’; ‘Stilleben’) and three color drawings (‘Blick auf Vanves’; ‘Der Tod des Caspar Hauser’; ‘Caspar Hauser’).
  Otto Erich Ziegert was born 01.07.1900 at Zerpenschleuse, borough of Niederbarnim (Brandenburg), † 28.12.1978 Düsseldorf. He is the son of Maximilian Ziegert and Ilse von Grund.
  His father Maximilian Ziegert (*Eilenburg 1852–1930) opened in 1899 the ‘Kunstantiquariat Max Ziegert’, Hochstraße 3, Frankfurt am Main (first at Bethmannstraße 56), vis à vis of the Europe wide important antiquarian Joseph Baer & Co. He learned the basics of the trade as employee of the renowned Joseph A. Stargardt, Berlin, thereafter of Ludwig Rosenthal in Munich, and knew many of his colleagues across Europe [Max Ziegert: Schattenrisse deutscher Antiquare – persönliche Erinnerungen aus den Jahren 1870–1915; Leipzig 1916).
  Erich Ziegert was after the two years 1923–1924 in Bremen operating a gallery in Berlin, Wittenbergplatz 3a, from 1928–1930. He married in Frankfurt am Main on 15.06.1926 Wanda Helene Pauline von Debschitz (Munich 01.11.1899 – 12.07.1986 Lausanne), daughter of Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski (1870–1935) and the artist Wilhelm von Debschitz (1871– 1948), marriage 1898, divorced July 1924. He is registered as Bremen inhabitant only later, relocating from Potsdam/Berlin, between 20.05.1946 and 29.1.1949, thereafter moving to Bad Godesberg.
  Wanda von Debschitz-Kunowski was a well-known portrait photographer of her time, opening her own studio in Berlin in 1921.
  Wilhelm von Debschitz was 1900 co-founder of the avant-garde art academy Debschitz-Schule in Munich, from 1914–1921 director of the ‘Kunstgewerbeschule- und Handwerkerschule Hannover’, 1916 co-founder of the ‘Kestner-Gesellschaft’.
  Wanda Helene Pauline’s sister Irene was married to Alexander (aka Xanti) Schawinsky, a Swiss painter, photographer and theater stage designer with ties to the Bauhaus and Walter Gropius.

  Galerie Linne / Linne, Ziegert & Co. ‘Kunst- und Buchhandlung’
  The business may have started in early 1923 following the correspondence of Kurt Schwitters with Hannah Höch on his and her artwork at Linne, Ziegert & Co. (Kurt Schwitters archive Berlinische Galerie, correspondence with Hannah Höch 24.04. and 01.05.1923). Another source for their activities is the offer dating 21.04.1924 and sent by Linne, Ziegert & Co. to the poet Stefan George [Stefan George Archiv, Württembergischen Landesbibliothek] on two busts (1910 and 1923) of Alfred Schuler by Clara Rilke-Westhoff, living then east of Bremen in Fischerhude and seen today as a pioneer female sculptor.
  Katherine Dreier refers to Linne and the gallery in conjunction with the seven G.M. watercolors she bought there most presumably in summer 1924 during her stay in Europe. The purchase date 1930 first mentioned in the catalog raisonné of 1950 may be the result of incomplete or misread records. The later notice (Yales University Art Museum, 1984, p. 455) of Katherine Dreier that she bought the watercolors from ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’, Bremen, are difficult to verify as no ‘Galerie Moderne Kunst’ appears in the Bremen registry between 1923–1932.
  Exhibitions by ‘Linne, Ziegert & Co.’ are known for 1923 and 1924. See below.

Exhibitions at Galerie Linne, Ziegert & Co. knows

1923 AprilKurt Schwitters, Hannah Höch.
1923 April–MayFritz Stuckenberg
1923 October–November'G"-Ausstellung - 'G' stands for 'Material zur elementaren Gestaltung', later 'Zeitschrift für Elementare Gestaltung', editors Werner Graeff, El Lissitzky, Friedrich Kiesler, Hans Richter, Mies van der Rohe
1923/1924Dora Bromberger

Exhibitions of Gerd Meyer knows

Last update February 22, 2017
1922, MarchThis exhibition on 2. Frühjahrsausstellung der 'Barke', Augusteum, Oldenburg.
Georg Emil Baumann, C. Behling, K.W. Göring, Gertrud Göring-Erichsen, Willy Knoop, Gerd Meyer [G M], Alexander Minke, Jan Oeltjen, Karl Sommerfeld, Georg von der Vring, Therese von der Vring
[Source: Jörg Michael Henneberg, Künstlergruppe 'Barke'; in: Therese von der Vring 1894-1927, Biographie; Künstlerhaus Jan Oeltjen, Oldenburg, 1996]
1924, MarchThis exhibition on 63 | Irma Stern - Gerd Meyer - Hans Düne - Architektur von Adolf Falke, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
[in: 'Zur 100. Ausstellung der Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover'; Hannover 1929. page 6 / catalog of the exhibition 100 | 'Edvard Munch', which includes details of the past 100 exhibitions]
08.12. – 11.12.1926

Auction Catalog, December 11, 1926, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover
The Kestner-Gesellschaft did stage a preview exhibition for an auction from December 8 – 11, 1926 in which Gerd Meyer took part.
Lot #130: Meier, Gert, Bremen, Komposition Braune Melodie, Aquarell 12x24 cm
This exhibition on 81a | Versteigerung einer Privatsammlung moderner Aquarelle und Graphik, Sonnabend, den 11. Dezember 1926, Hannover, [organized by Karl von der Porten jun.], Ort: Kestner-Gesellschaft e.V., Hannover, Königstraße 8.

It is an auction of a prestigious private collection (Herbert von Garvens) of watercolors and graphic art by 82 well known artists of the beginning 20th century, among them Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Max Beckmann, Fernand Léger, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, László Móhóly-Nagy, Emil Nolde, Kurt Schwitters, Willi Baumeister, Lyonel Feininger.

The complete, digitized catalog (11 pages) on
1942This exhibition on Kunstausstellung des Gaues Weser-Ems : Gemälde, Graphik, Plastik
Organized by the Oldenburger Kunstverein and 'Künstlerbund Bremen', together with the 'Niederländisch-Deutsche Kulturgemeinschaft'.
06.09. – 02.10.1949This exhibition on The Société Anonyme Collection, Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston; (Source: Dreier Bequest, 1984, YSA 51, p.781)
10.10. – 06.11.1949This exhibition on Modern Art From the Collection of the Société Anonyme, Museum of Modern Art: 1920, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA
(Source: Dreier Bequest, 1984, YSA 54, p.781)
07.04.–12.05.1978This exhibition on Künstler in Delmenhorst - Werke aus dem Kunstbesitz der Stadt Delmenhorst anläßlich des Jubiläums "75 Jahre Kreisfreiheit", Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
1981Gerd Meyer - Bilder der 20er Jahre, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg [from CV in catalog 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land, p. 46} No further details
22.02. – 22.03.1987This exhibition on 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land - 1786–1986
Oldenburger Kunsrverein and Landesmuseum Oldenburg
29.03. –26.04.1987This exhibition on 200 Jahre Malerei im Oldenburger Land - 1786–1986
Kunsthalle Wilhelmshaven
1990, SeptemberGerd Meyer-Hellensiek, Kunsthandlung Klaus von Seggern, Oldenburg
[Review by Jörg Michael Henneberg; in: Der Oldenburgische Hauskalender oder Hausfreund 1992, page 15-21.]
06.06. – 21.07.1999This exhibition on Graphische Sammlung Klassische Moderne - 25 Jahre Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst
curator Barbara Alms, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
11.01. – 03.02.2002This exhibition on Graphische Sammlung II - Akrobaten, Harlekine und Amazonen,
curator Barbara Alms, Städtische Galerie Delmenhorst - Haus Coburg
06.09. – 20.12.2009This exhibition on 'entartet' - beschlagnahmt - Bremer Künstler im Nationalsozialismus
curator Birgit Neumann-Dietzsch, Städtische Galerie Bremen

Société Anonyme Retrospective 2006

  This exhibition on The Société Anonyme – Modernism for America
The Yale University Art Museum organized an important retrospective for the legendary Société Anonyme starting at the Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, April 23 – August 20, 2006, organized by Jennifer Gross, then touring to The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC, Dallas Museum of Art (TX), Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Nashville (TN), and Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven (CT), December 12, 2012 – July 14, 2013.
  In 1941 Katherine Dreier and Marcel Duchamp donated a portion of their collection to Yale University. Among others works of art Katherine Dreier had bought at the legendary and influential Blog post Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922, e.g. the Konstantin Medunetsky [Mechmetzki] scultpure ‘Construction’ (1919).
  At this time, Dreier and Duchamp actively sought additional gifts to round out their Collection. Their efforts prompted donations from numerous artists including Jean Arp, John Graham, Jean Crotti, and one of the organization’s cofounders, Man Ray. When the group formally dissolved in 1950, the collection assembled by the Société Anonyme constituted one of the foremost assemblages of modern art in America, paralleled only by The Museum of Modern Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, in New York.

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Easy access to additional resources with our Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link

Artists / Collector / Curators / Gallery / Museum / News and Notes / Research
Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on

Easy access to additional resources with our Wikipedia and WorldCat-Identity link as a reference for artists, exhibition venues, curators and their exhibitions

The artist-info exhibition-history page for artists, for galleries, museums, non-profit and collector’s venues is a unique possibility to document exhibition information.
Complete information on group-exhibitions and cross-linking the exhibition details revalues the important function exhibitions always had and will have, as the most influential place to present artwork to the public.
The insight is providing, from 1900 up to the present, across the many individual exhibitions of artists, organized by many different exhibition venues, by different curators, offers a new way to explore and research the profile of artists, exhibition venues, and curators.
That’s an important advantage to printed biographies.

Our exhibition-history information has become an important source to identify and reference an artist’s as well as an exhibition venue’s name and through this their profile, with sometimes many hundred solo- and group-exhibitions in many countries and cities.
The importance of such a reference shows as an example our research on Blog Post Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 / The 1st Russian Show Berlin 1922: In the catalog 9 artist names have two different spellings, we added to the exhibition’s 162 artist names 301 alias names which we found in the more than 3.350 exhibitions knows for the 162 artists. Searching any of these 301 alias names with artist-info Main-Search will display the artist-info reference name for the looked up artist.

Access to more resources beyond the artist-info exhibition-history

To better inform and to facilitate the access to more information beyond the artist-info exhibition-history page artist-info is adding a link to Wikipedia and to WorldCat-Identity as part of the artist, exhibition venue, and curator page's header.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on

Wikipedia  Wikipedia link

The Wikipedia page of an artist, an exhibition venue, a curator can provide a first overview and encourage further research.
Your notice on missing Wikipedia page information is always welcome.

Wikipedia  WorldCat-Identity link

As the information accessible through the Internet is growing more and more authority control to identify an artist, an exhibition venue, or a curator across the many different sources has become an important additional reference.
Among the many national and international authority control databases we have chosen WorldCat-Identity as reference for artists, exhibition venues and curators on as it offers a wide range of information on additional resources for research in particular in libraries and archives worldwide.
The link to the WorldCat-Identity is part of the artist's, exhibition venue's, or curator's page header.
We are adding constantly the related WorldCat-Identity page link but your email on a missing link is always welcome.
Wikipedia SRGM

WorldCat-Id SRGM

This exhibition on  Individual Exhibition Page for an exhibition

All exhibitions of an exhibition venue in with an exhibition title can be displayed on an individual page. Clicking this icon This exhibition on opens a new browser window with this exhibitions artist-info sub-URL.
To update exhibitions without exhibition title, please do contact us or read our services page.

Summary Section

Each exhibition-history page of an artist, exhibition venue, or curator in artist-info has a summary section. It analysis the sometime many 100 exhibitions and provides an important overview.
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum on - Summary

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Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

Analytics / Exhibition History / History / Research
Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

The cover page of the catalog, deisgn by El Lissitzky  –  See the table below with all artists

Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 – The Artists

Like in the Mythologies quotidiennes exhibition catalog (Paris, 1964) – Blog Post see our blog post – the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 exhibition catalog states only the artist’s last name.
Our survey seeks the answer to this question in identifying and allocating the artists through their many exhibitions from 1900 up to the present on and to provide like this new insight and overview to prove the importance of this exhibition not only for the well-known artists. As a result of our research we could identify other artists who participated but are not listed in the catalog. See note [1] and [2] below.
The table at the bottom of this post shows our allocation of the artists’ last name in the catalog of 1922 to their cross-linked exhibition history on

An Outstanding Exhibition – Purpose and Selection

The main purpose of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 (September-December 1922) was fundraising to support the starving Russian people, and David Shterenberg, a painter himself and showing his work as well in Berlin, was commissioned at the beginning of 1922 by the Bolshevik Russian State (RSFSR) to organize the exhibition in Berlin, due to the positive climate for Russian intellectuals and artists. The Galerie Der Sturm (1910-1932) directed by Herwarth Walden was certainly one of the most active places to support the new avant-garde movement. Looking back Berlin in mid October 1922 was the right place in Western Europe and in history for this exhibition. See Facts and Figures below.
David Shterenberg made a courageous selection of well known as well as of younger, then not yet internationally known artists, and so called Russian avant-garde artists supporting new movements like non-objective art. The wide scope of the artist’s work he aimed for did reunite so controversial painters like Chagall and Malevich, theater stage and costume sketches and architecture sketches. See all sections under Facts and Figures below. It attracted many more visitors than expected and a wide national and international response by critics and the press for many decades. However, the important impulse and enthusiasm which arose from this influential exhibition of non-objective art and the plans to show it in other European towns and even the USA was made impossible by the political reality.
Allocating the artists’ last name in the Berlin catalog of 1922 was an exciting challenge. For the 160 Russian artists of the Berlin exhibition the database knows January 2020 more than 4.633 solo- and group exhibitions, from 1912 (4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, Köln) up to the present, at many exhibition venues in Europe, North America, and around the world. The number will grow continuously with our ongoing documentation of exhibitions from 1890 up to the present. 

Chagall, who was born in 1887 in Liozna near Vitebsk (Belarus), returned in 1914 when World War I broke out from Paris to his hometown. Only a few month after the after the October Revolution on November 7, 1917, Chagall founded the Vitebsk People’s Art College (Narodnoy Khudozhestvennoye Uchilische) in 1918 with the permission of David Shterenberg, then the head of the art section of the Division of the People’s Enlightenment. Chagall’s public art activities in Vitebsk lead to his project of founding a new type of art school with community studios.
Both, Marc Chagall and from autumn 1919 onwards Kasimir Malevich, were teachers at the Vitebsk Academy. After Malevich had arrived many of Chagall’s students changed to the class of Malevich. After he had lost all his students to Malevich in May 1920 Chagall officially resigned in June and went to Moscow.
Another example for Shterenberg’s wide scope of selection is the Latvian artist Karlis Joganson (1892-1929). The research published since the 1990s revealed his importance.
Architecture sketches were shown in Berlin as well, e.g. by Wladimir Krinskij, Gerogii Mapu, Aleksander Rodchenko, and Alexandr Shevchenko. They were members of ZhivSkulptArkh (Painting, Sculpture and Architecture), until the end of 1919 known as SinSkulptArkh (Synthesis of Sculpture and Architecture).
The Berlin catalog lists as well theater stage and costume sketches by some artists.

Russian Avant-Garde Exhibitions

Another important perspective for our research was to show, how the artists of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were participating in other exhibitions from before World War I ( This exhibition on 4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, 1922 Köln) up to the present. They can easily be explored with a mouse click thanks to the structure of artist-info.
Some examples among many other exhibitions on the Russian avant-garde artist-info documented are
2016 – This exhibition on A Revolutionary Impulse – The Rise of the Russian Avant-Garde, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2011 – This exhibition on Chagall et l’avant-garde russe, Musée de Grenoble
2003 – This exhibition on Traumfabrik Kommunismus – Die visuelle Kultur der Stalinzeit, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt am Main
2001 – This exhibition on mit voller Kraft. – Russische Avantgarde 1910-1934, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg
2000 – This exhibition on Futurismus in Russland – und David Burliuk, ‘Vater des Russischen Futurismus’, Von der Heydt-Kunsthalle, Wuppertal
1993 – This exhibition on Von Malewitsch bis Kabakov – Russische Avantgarde im 20. Jahrhundert. Die Sammlung Ludwig, Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle, Köln
1992 – This exhibition on The Great Utopia – The Russian and Soviet Avant-Garde, 1915-1932, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
1989 – This exhibition on 100 Years of Russian Art, 1889-1989 – from Private Collections in the USSR, Barbican Art Gallery, London
1983 – This exhibition on The 1st Russian Show – A commemoration of the Van Diemen Exhibition, Berlin 1922, Annely Juda Fine Art, London; Catalog with texts by Andrei B. Nakov, Krisztina Passuth, Peter Nisbet, Christina Lodder;
Andrei Nakov, ‘This Last exhibition which was First‘, Note [3] on page 8 of this Annely Juda exhibition catalog: “These [Kandinsky’s] works, submitted at the last moment, are not mentioned in the catalog [This exhibition on Esposizione libera futurista internazionale, Galleria Futurista – Giuseppe Sprovieri, Roma]. (This information was given to me by G. Sprovieri whom I would like to thank for his generous help and support in my research on ths subject).”
1981 – This exhibition on Art of the Avant-Garde in Russia – Selections from the George Costakis Collection, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
1978 – This exhibition on Revolution – Russian Avant-Garde, 1912-1930, Museum of Modern Art, New York
1977 – This exhibition on Tendenzen der Zwanziger Jahre – 15. Europäische Kunstausstellung, Neue National Galerie, Berlin
1973 – This exhibition on Tatlin’s Dream – Russian Suprematist and Constructivist Art 1910-1923, Fischer Fine Art, London
1972 – This exhibition on Kunst in der Revolution – Architektur, Produktgestaltung, Malerei, Plastik, Agitation, Theater, Film in der Sowjetunion 1917-1932, Württembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart
1968 – This exhibition on Aspects de l’Avant Garde Russe 1905-1925, Galerie Jean Chauvelin, Paris
1966 onwards – This exhibition on Many exhibitions at Galerie Gmurzinska
1937 – This exhibition on Konstruktivisten, Kunsthalle Basel
1936 – This exhibition on Cubism and Abstract Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York
1924 – This exhibition on 14. Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte della Città di Venezia, 44 artists of the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were showing at the Biennale di Venezia in 1924, of altogether 96 Russian artists.
1923 – This exhibition on Exhbition of Russian Painting and Sculpture, Brooklyn Museum (NY)
Text about this exhibition on The Introduction in the catalog by Christian Brinton with critical rtemarks on the Berlin 1922 exhibition.
Russian Painting and Sculpture (1/2) – Paintings and Drawings
Russian Painting and Sculpture (2/2) – Sculpture
1922 – This exhibition on Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922
1920 – This exhibition on 12. Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte della Città di Venezia, 2 artists of the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 were showing at the Biennale di Venezia in 1920, of altogether 19 Russian artists.

Facts and Figures

The Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 took place at the Galerie van Diemen & Co, GmbH, Berlin, Unter den Linden 21, from October 15 until December 1922.
The Art Section of the Division of People’s Enlightenment asked David Shterenberg to organize this sales exhibition. The catalog states as its purpose: The proceeds will go to the starving people of Russia (‘Der Reinertrag ist für die Hungernden Russlands bestimmt!’).
This exhibition on All artists of Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 on

The catalog lists the artists by media
The cover page of the catalog was designed by El Lissitzky.
The introductions by Davide Sterenberg, Edwin Redslob, Arthur Holitscher, and an unkown author of ‘Zur Einführung’ is followed by the list of artists by media
Paintings (84 artists)
Watercolors, Drawings, Wood- and Lino-Cut, Copper Engraving, Posters, Albums, Architecture- and Theater Sketches (111 artists)
Sculpture (12 artists).
More media without artists are listed in a fourth segment: Porcelaine, Glass, Decorative Works, Semiprecious Stones.
The third part of the catalog shows 48 black and white illustrations of artwork by 38 artists, plus 6 illustrations of St. Petersburg porcelain.
For the student’s works (Schülerarbeiten), the works from the Vitebsk Academy students (Schule von Witebsk), and the children’s water colors (Kinderaquarelle) no names are listed.
Teachers at the Vitebsk Academy (Belarus) in January 1919 were Chagall, Kseniya Boguslavskaya, Ivan Puni (a.k.a. Jean Pougny), Alexander Romm, Vera Yermolayeva, Nikolai Radlov, El Lissitzky, Ivan Tilberg, from November 1919 onwards Malevich, and before 1919 Mstislav Dobujinski.

Allocating the Catalog’s Artist Names
Notes on Artists Inside/Outside the 1922 Catalog

   For the 168 Russian artists of the 1922 Berlin exhibition knows March 2024 more than 4.982 solo- and group exhibitions, from 1912 (This exhibition on 4. Sonderbund Ausstellung, Köln) up to the present. The 168 artists are related through group exhibitions to 132.977 other artists.

   This research project is a good example how documenting exhibitions with, even from many decades ago, helps to explore and revalue the profile of artists, exhibition venues, and curators through their exhibition information.

   Table-Note [1]: Lasar Markovič Chidekel [Khidekel] (1904 - 1986) is not listed in the catalog. He participated at the 1922 Berlin exhibition as part of UNOVIS. Biography of Lasar Chidekel in the catalog of: This exhibition on Malewitsch und sein Einfluss, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz, 16.05.-07.09. 2008.
Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922-Page 17
Catalog page 17
   Table-Note [2]: Michail Vasilyevich Matyushin (1861 - 1934), the eminent Russian avant-garde artist, is not listed in the 1922 Berlin catalog. The reason to include him in our table is because the Erste Russische Kunstausstellung Berlin 1922 is part of his exhibitions list on page 103 of the exhibition catalog of This exhibition on Matjuschin und die Leningrader Avantgarde (Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe, 27.04.-09.06. 1991, exhibition of the 'Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe'; catalog by Oktogon Verlag, Stuttgart-München, ISBN 3-927789-09-7). It was organised by Heinrich Klotz, Alla Powelichina, and Jewgenija Petrowa.
The Matjuschin und die Leningrader Avantgarde exhibition in 1991 in Karlsruhe was based on Alla Powelichina's exhibition Matjuschin und seine Schüler in 1990 in the Sankt Petersburg History Museum.

I would like to thank Christina Lodder, University of Kent, for her help regarding the transliteration of some artist names which I couldn't identify through exhibitions or other sources.

January 2020
- 8 artist names with different spelling: Some artists are part of more than one section in the catalog (Painting, Watercolors / Prints, Sculpture, Illustrations). In some cases the spelling of their name differs. Example: MECHMETZKI / MEDUNETZKI
- Alias: For many Russian artist names different spellings are in use. Most of these aliases are listed below. Main Search knows these alias names, too.
1922 CatalogOn CatalogOn
ALTMANN, N.Altman, Nathan Isayevich (1889 - 1970)(52)LISSITZKY / LISSITZKILissitzky, El [Lazar Markovich] (1890 - 1941)
Alias: Lissitzki
ANIENKOWAnnenkov, Jurii Pawlowitsch (1889 - 1974)
Aliases: Annenkoff, Annenkow
(41)MALEWITSCHMalevich, Kazimir Severinovich (1879 - 1935)
Aliases: Malewitsch, Malevitch, Malevič, Malewicz
ARCHIPENKOArchipenko, Alexander Porfirjowitsch (1887 - 1964)(208)Not in the catalogMalyavin, Filip Andreevic (1869 - 1940)
Aliases: Maliavine, Maljawin, Malavin, Maljavin
ARCHIPOWArchipov, Abram (1862 - 1930)
Aliases: Arkhipov, Archipow
(12)MALKINMalkin, Georges Alexandre (1898 - 1970)
Alias: Malkine
ARNSCHTAM, A.Arnshtam, Alexander Martynovych (1880 - 1969)
Alias: Arnstam
(1)MALUTINMaljutin, Sergej Vasil'evic (1895 - 1937)
Aliases: Malyutin, Maljutin, Malioutine
ARONSOHNAronson, Boris (1898 - 1980)
Alias: Aronsohn
No further details
BARANOW-ROSSINEBaranov-Rossiné, Vladimir Dawidowitsch (1888 - 1944)
Aliases: Baranoff-Rossine, Baranow-Rossine
(30)MANSUROWMansurov, Pawel Andrejewitsch (1896 - 1984)
Aliases: Mansuroff, Mansouroff, Mansourov, Mansurow
BELJAJEWBeljaev, Vasilij Pavlovic (1901 - 1942)
Aliases: Belyaev, Beljaew
(1)MAPUMapu, Georgii
No further details
Benois, Alexandre Nikolayevich (1870 - 1960)
Alias: Benua
(14)MASCHKOWMashkov, Ilya Ivanovich (1881 - 1944)
Aliases: Maschkoff, Maschkow, Machkov, Maskov
BOGUSLAWSKAJABoguslawskaja, Xenia Leonidowna (1892 - 1972)
Aliases: Boguslavskaja, Bogouslavskaïa
(11)Not in the catalogMatyushin, Michail Vasilyevich (1861 - 1934) [2]
Aliases: Matjuschin, Matyushin, Matjusin, Matiushin, Matiouchine, Matjušin
BOLTSCHAKOW / BOTSCHKOWBolschakow, Konstantin Aristarchowitsch (1895 - 1938)
Aliases: Bolshakov, Boltschakow, Botschkow
(2)MATORINMatorin, Mikhail Vladimirovič (1901 - 1976)(3)
BRASBraz, Osip Emmanuilovich (1873 - 1936)
Alias: Bras
(2)MATWEJEWMatveev, Aleksandr Terentievich (1878 - 1960)
Aliases: Matwejew, Matveyev
BRUNIBruni, Lew Alexandrowitsch (1894 - 1948)(12)MAXIMOWMaximov, Nikolay Kristoforich (1892 - 1974)
Alias: Maximow
BUBNOWABubnova, Varvara Dmitrievna (1886 - 1983)
Alias: Bubnowa
(8)MECHMETZKI / MEDUNETZKIMedunetsky, Konstantin Konstantinovic (1899 - 1935)
Aliases: Mechmetzki, Meduneckij, Medunezki
BUCHOWETZKIBukowiezkij, Iewgenij (1866 - 1948)
Alias: Buchowetzki
No further details
Alias: Medwiedjew
BURLJUK / BURLJUNKBurliuk, David Davidovich (1882 - 1967)
Aliases: Burjuk, Burljuk, Burlyuk, Bourliouk
(64)MESENTZEWMezentsev, Sergei Aleksandrovich No further details
Alias: Mesentzew
CHAGALLChagall, Marc (1887 - 1985)
Aliases: Sagal, Sagalov
(542)MIKLASCHEWSKAJAMiklaschewskaja, Tamara (1894 - 1947)(2)
Not in the catalogChidekel [Khidekel], Lasar Markovič (1904 - 1986) [1]
Alias: Khidekel
(7)MILLIOTIMilioti, Nikolaj Dmitrievic (1874 - 1962)(6)
CHOCHRIAKOWKhokhryakov, Nikolay (1887 - 1928)
Aliases: Chochriakow, Khokhrianov
(1)MITURITSCHMiturich, Pjotr Vasil'evich (1887 - 1956)
Aliases: Mituritsch, Miturich, Mituric, Mitouritch
DENISSOWSKIDenisovski, Nikolai Fedorovich (1901 - 1981)
Aliases: Denissowskii, Denisovskij, Denisovsky
(9)MOLTSCHANOWMolchanov, Konstantin Mikhailovich (1906 - 1980)
Alias: Moltschanow
DJEGINZhegin, Lev Feodorovich (1892 - 1969)
Aliases: Djegin, Geghin, Shekhtel
(3)MORAWOWMoravof, Aleksander Viktorovitch (1878 - 1951)
Aliases: Moravov, Morawow
DOBUJINSKIDobuzinskij, Mstislav Valerianovic (1875 - 1957)
Aliases: Dobuschinski, Dobujinski, Doboujinski, Dobužinskis, Dobuzhinsky
(11)MORGUNOWMorgunov, Alexei Alexeyevich (1884 - 1935)
Aliases: Morgunow, Morgounow
DREWINDrevin, Aleksandr Davydovich (1889 - 1938)
Alias: Drewin
(19)NASARETZKAJANagaevskaya, Elena Varnavovna (1900 - 1989)(1)
EIGESEiges, Veniamin Romanovich (1888 - 1956)(2)NESTEREW / NESTEROWNesterov, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1862 - 1942)(7)
ENGELEngel, Otto Heinrich (1866 - 1949)(29)NIKRITINNikritin, Solomon Borissowitsch (1898 - 1965)(19)
ERMOLAJEWAErmolaeva, Vera Mikhailovna (1893 - 1938)
Aliases: Ermolajewa, Jermolajewa, Yermolayeva, Yermolaeva
(14)NOSKOWNoskov, Mikhail Vasil'evich (1892 - 1957)
Alias: Noskow
EXTERExter, Alexandra Alexandrovna (1882 - 1949)
Alias: Ekster
(117)OLENIKOlejnik, Janka (1887 - 1954)(1)
FALKFalk, Robert Rafailovic (1886 - 1958)(26)OSMERKINOsmerkin, Alexander Alexandrovich (1892 - 1953)(9)
FAVORSKAJAFavorskaja, Vera Vasilyevna (1896 - 1977)
(2)PAINPain, Yakov Semenovich (1898 - ?)(1)
FEDOROWFedorov, German Vasilyevich (1885 - 1976)
Alias: Fedorow
(3)PAWLOWPavlov, Semen Andreevi (1893 - 1941)(2)
FEDOROWSKIFedorovskij, Fedor Fedorovi (1883 - 1955)
Alias: Fedorowski, Fedorovsky
(3)PEREKATOWPerekatov, Alexander
Alias: Perekatow
FILONOWFilonov, Pawel Nikolajevitsch (1882 - 1941)
Alias: Filonow
(31)PERINPéri, László (1899 - 1967)(48)
GABOGabo, Naum [Naum Neemia Pevsner] (1890 - 1977)(151)PESTELLPestel, Wera Efimovna (1886 - 1952)
Alias: Pestell
No further details
Alias: Gambarow
(1)PETROWITSCHEWPetrovichev, Petr Ivanovich (1874 - 1947)
Alias: Petrowitschew
GAUSCHGaush, Alexandre Fedorovich (1873 - 1947)
Aliases: Gausch, Gauš, Gaúcho, Hausch, Hauš
(5)PEWSNERPevsner, Antoine (1884 - 1962)
Alias: Pewsner
GERASSIMOWGerasimov, Alexander Mikhaylovich (1881 - 1963)
Alias: Gerassimow
(6)POPOPWAPopova, Lyubow Sergeyevna (1889 - 1924)
Alias: Popowa
GRABARGrabar, Igor Emmanuilovich (1871 - 1960)(6)PRUSSAKOWPrusakow, Nikolaj Petrowitsch (1900 - 1952)
Alias: Prussakow
GRIGORJEW, N.Grigoriev, Nikolai Mikhalovich (1880 - 1943)
Alias: Grigorjew
(1)PUNI, J.Puni, Ivan Albertovich [Jean Pougny] (1892 - 1956)
Alias: Pugni
GRISCHTSCHENKOGrishchenko, Aleksei Vasilievich (1883 - 1977)
Aliases: Grischtschenko, Gritchenko, Grischenko
(14)RADIMOWRadimov, Pavel Aleksandrovich (1887 - 1967)
Alias: Radimow
IDELSONIdelson-Labusquere, Vera (1893 - 1977)(2)RODSCHENKORodchenko, Aleksander Mikhailovich (1891 - 1956)
Aliases: Rodtschenko, Rodschenko, Rodtchenko, Rodčenko
IWANOWIvanov, Sergei Ivanovich (1885-1942)
Alias: Iwanow
(7)ROJDESTWENSKYRozhdestvensky, Vasily Vasilyevich (1884 - 1963)
Aliases: Roshdjestwjenskij, Rojdestwensky, Roshdestwenski, Roschdestwenski, Rozdestvenskij
JAKIMTSCHENKOYakimchenko, Alexander Georgiev (1878 - 1928)
Aliases: Jakimtschenko, Jakimtscenko
(2)ROMANOWITSCHRomanovich, Sergey Mikhalovich (1894 - 1968)
Alias: Romanowitsch
JAKULOWYakulov, Georgy Bogdanovich (1884 - 1928)
Aliases: Jakulow, Yakoulov, Yakouloff
(22)ROSANOWARozanova, Olga Vladimirovna (1886 - 1918)
Alias: Rosanova
JOGANSONJoganson, Karlis (1890 - 1929)
Aliases: Johanson, Ioganson, Johansons
(16)Not in the catalogRoyak, Efim Moiseevich (1906-1987)
Alias: Rayak
JOUKOWSKIZukowski, Stanislaw Yulianovich (1873 - 1944)
Aliases: Joukowski, Jukovski, Schukowski, Zukovskii, Zhukovsky
(5)SACHAROWSacharoff, Olga Nicolaevna (1889 - 1967)
Aliases: Sacharova, Sacharow
JUDINYudin, Lev Alexandrovich (1901 - 1941)
Alias: Judin
(5)SALITZāle, Kārlis [Karl Zalit] (1888 - 1942)
Aliases: Zalit, Salit
JUONYuon, Konstantin Fyodorovich (1875 - 1958)
Aliases: Iuon, Juon, Youon
(11)SAMOSCHKINZamoshkin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1899 - 1977)
Alias: Samoschkin
KAGANKagan, Anna Abelewna (1902 - 1974)
Alias: Kogan
(9)SARJANSaryan, Martiros Sergeevich (1880 - 1972)
Aliases: Sarian, Sarjan
KANDINSKIKandinsky, Wassily (1866 - 1944)
Aliases: Kandinski, Kandinskij
(663)SAWJALOWSawjalow [Zavialov], Iwan Fedorovich (1893 - 1937)
Aliases: Zavyalov, Zavialov
KAPLUNKaplun, Adrian Vladimirovich (1887 - 1974)
Alias: Kaploune
(2)SCHEMIAKINShemyakin, Mikhail F. (1875 - 1944)
Alias: Schemiakin
KAREWKarev, Alexei Eremeevich (1879 - 1942)
Aliases: Karew, Kareff
(2)SCHESTOPALOWAShestopalova, Elena Ivanovna (1895 - 1988)(1)
Not in the catalogKogan, Nina Josifowna (1889 - 1942)
Aliases: Kagan
(12)SCHWETSCHENKOShevchenko, Alexander Vasilyevich (1882 - 1948)
Aliases: Chevtchenko, Schevchenko, Schewtschenko, Sevcenko, Schwetschenko
KOLESNIKOWKolesnikov, Sergej Michaijlovic (1889 - 1952)
Aliases: Klosnikow, Kolesnikow
(2)SCHIROKOWChirokov [Scirokof], Michel de
Aliases: Schirokow, Scirokof, Schirokow
KLUNKliunkov [Kliun], Ivan Vasilievich (1873 - 1943)
Aliases: Kljun, Klyun, Kyun, Klioune, Klyoun, Klun, Kljunkow
(79)SCHIKOLNIKSkolnik, Iosif Solomonovic (1883 - 1926)
Alias: Schkolnik, Shkol'nik, Shkolnik, Školnik
Klutsis, Gustav Gustavovich (1895 - 1938)
Aliases: Klucis, Klutzis, Kluzis, Kloutsis
(88)SEIZEWASaizew, Nikolai (1885 - 1938)
Alias: Seizewa
KOLZOWKoltsov, Sergei Vasilievich (1892 - 1951)
Aliases: Kolzow, Kaltsov
(1)SEVERNYSeverin, Ivan Mitrofanovich (1881 - 1964)
Alias: Severny
KOMARDJENKOWKomardenkov, Vassily Petrovitsch (1897 - 1973)
Alias: Komardjenkow
(3)SINESUBOW / SINEZUBOWSinezubov, Nikolay Vladimirovich (1891 - 1956)
Aliases: Sinezouboff, Sinesubow, Sinezubow
Not in the catalogKomissarenko, Zenon Petrovich (1891-1978)(1)SOKOLOWSokolow, Michail Ksenofontovich (1885 - 1947)(4)
KONTSCHALOWSKIKonchalovsky, Pyotr Petrovich (1876 - 1956)
Aliases: Kontschalowski, Kontschalowskij, Kontchalovski, Kontchalovsky, Koncalovskij, Končalovskij
(29)STEINBERGShteinberg, Eduard Antonovich (1882 - 1935)
Aliases: Shteynberg, Steinberg, Steynberg
KOROLJEWKoroljow, Boris Danilowitsch (1884 - 1963)
Aliases: Korolev, Koroljew, Korolyov
(19)STENBERGShtenberg, Irina Valerianovna (1905 - 1985)
Aliases: Steinberg
KOROWINKorovin, Constantin Alexeiev (1861 - 1939)
Aliases: Korowin, Korovine
(16)STENBERG, G.Stenberg, Georgii Avgustovich (1900 - 1933)(10)
KOSINTZEWAKossinzewa, Ljubow Alexejwna (1898 - 1978)
Aliases: Kosintzewa, Kozintseva, Kozinceva
(1)STENBERG, W.Stenberg, Wladimir Awgustowitsch (1899 - 1982)(17)
KOSLINSKIKoslinskij, Wladimir Iwanowitsch (1891 - 1967)
Aliases: Koslinsky, Kozlinski
(8)STEPANOWAStepanova, Varvara Fjodorowna (1894 - 1958)
Alias: Stepanowa
KRASOWSKIKrassowski, Feliks (1895 - 1967)
Aliases: Krasowski, Krassovski
(1)STERENBERG, D.Schterenberg, David Petrowitsch (1881 - 1948)
Aliases: Schterenberg, Sterenberg, Sternberg, Chterenberg
KRAWTSCHENKOKravchenko, Aleksei Ilyich (1889 - 1940)
Aliases: Kravtchenko, Krawtschenko
(7)STREGEMINSKYStrzemiński, Władysław Maximilianowitsch (1893 - 1952)
Aliases: Stregeminsky, Strsheminski
KREITORKraïtor, Ivan Kondratievich (1880 - 1957)
Aliases: Kreitor, Kraitor
(1)SWESCHNIKOWASveshnikov, Ivan Ivanovich (1896 - 1963)
Alias: Sweschnikow
KRIMOWKrymov, Nikolai Petrovich (1884 - 1958)
Aliases: Krymow, Krimov, Krimow
(10)SWETLOWSvetlov, Sergei Yakovlevich (1903 - 1964)
Alias: Swetlow
KRINSKIKrinskij, Wladimir Fjodorowitsch (1890 - 1971)
Aliases: Krinsky, Krinski
(8)TATLINTatlin, Vladimir Yevgrafovich (1885 - 1953)
Alias: Tatline
No further details
Alias: Kruglow
(1)TERSATyrsa, Nikolai Andreevich (1887 - 1942)
Aliases: Tirsa, Tersa
KUDNJASCHOWKoudriachov, Ivan Alekseevich (1896 - 1972)
Aliases: Kudriashev, Kudriaschov, Kudrjaschow, Kudnjaschow, Kudriashov, Kudrjasev
(32)TOURJANSKITurjansky, Leonard Viktorovich (1875 - 1945)
Aliases: Tourshansky, Turzhansky, Turzhanskii, Tourjanski, Turjanski, Turshanskij, Turschanski, Turzhansky, Turjansky
KULBINKulbin, Nicolai Ivanovitch (1868 - 1917)
Alias: Koulbine
(11)TSCHAIKOWChaykov [Tchaikov], Iosif Moiseevich (1888 - 1979)
Aliases: Chaikov, Cajkov, Tschaikow, Tchaikov
KUPRIANOWKuprianov, Nicolas (1894 - 1933)
Aliases: Koupreianov, Kupreyanov, Kuprianow, Kupryanov, Kuprejanoff, Kuprejanow, Kupreianoff
(5)TSCHECHONIN, S.Tschechonin, Serge Wassiliewitsch (1878 - 1936)
Aliases: Cechonin, Chekhonin
KUPRINKuprin, Alexander Vasilyevich (1880 - 1960)
Alias: Kouprine
(26)TSCHEKMAZOWChekmazov [Tschekmazow], Ivan Ivanovich (1901 - 1961)
Aliases: Tchekmazov, Tschekmazow, Tschekmazov
KUSNIETZOWKuznetsov, Konstantin Pavlovich (1863 - 1936)(6)TSCHEKREGINChekrygin [Tschekrygin], Vassily Nikolaevich (1897 - 1922)
Aliases: Čekrygin, Chekrigin, Tschekrekin, Tchekrigine, Tchekryguine
KUSTODIEWKustodiev, Boris Mikhaylovich (1878 - 1927)
Aliases: Kustodijew, Kustodiew, Koustodiev, Kustodijeff, Kustodjeff
(15)TSCHERBINOWSKIScherbinovskiy, Dimitri Anfimovitch (1867 - 1926)
Aliases: Sherbinovski, Tscherbinowski
KUZNETZOW, P.Kuznetsov, Pavel Varfolomeevich (1878 - 1968)
Alias: Kuznetzow
(17)TSCHERNISCHOWChernikhov [Tschernichow], Yakov Georgievich (1889 - 1951)
Aliases: Černykov, Tschernichow, Tchernikho, Tschernischow
Not in the catalogLabas, Alexander Arkadewitsch (1900 - 1983)(12)UDALTZOWAUdaltsova, Nadezhda Andreyevna (1886 - 1961)
Aliases: Oudaltsova, Udalzowa, Udalcova
LADOWSKILadovsky, Nikolaj Alexandrowitsch (1881 - 1941)
Aliases: Ladowski, Ladowskij
(14)USATSCHOWUsachev, Alexey Ivanovich (1891 - 1957)
Aliases: Ussacioff, Usatschow
LAPSCHINLapschin, Nikolai Fjodorowitsch (1889 - 1942)
Alias: Lapschin
(10)WASILIEWWasiliew, Piotr (1899 - 1975)(1)
LAWINSKILavinskij, Anton Michajlovic (1893 - 1968)
Aliases: Lawinski, Lawinskij
No further details
Alias: Wasilkow
LEBEDIEWLebedev, Vladimir Vasil'evich (1891 - 1967)
Alias: Lebedew
(24)WASNETZOWVasnetsov, Apollinari Mikhailovich (1856 - 1933)
Aliases: Vasnecov, Wassnetzow, Wasnetsow, Wasnetzow, Wasnezow
LEBLANLeblan, Mikhail Varfolomeevich (1875 - 1940)(3)WESNINVesnin, Alexandr Alexandrovich (1883 - 1959)
Aliases: Vesnine, Wesnin, Wessnin
LEDANTIULe-Dantiu, Mikhail Vasilyevich (1891 - 1917)
Aliases: Le Dantu, Ledantu, Ledantiu, Ledentu
(8)WOLKOWVolkov, Aleksandr Nikolaevitch (1886 - 1957)
Alias: Wolkow
LENTULOWLentulov, Aristarkh Vasilyevich (1882 - 1943)
Aliases: Lentulow, Lentuloff, Lentouloff, Lentoulov
(40)ZETLINZeldin, Chaim
No further details
Alias: Zetlin
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